Minute-made orange juice has a pH of 2.80. The acidity will have a negative effect on the germination of the seeds. Sour conditions decrease the germination rate of seeds. The length of roots in a germinating seed is reduced by the acidic conditions, which, in its turn, affects the rate of germination of seeds (Lee 435).
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The seed membrane is permeable to water. Water is necessary for a seed to germinate. Hydrolysis of polysaccharides in seeds to simple sugars for the germination process is crucial. The permeable seed membrane allows water to enter the seed. Acidic conditions affect the permeability of seed membrane, thereby, reducing the chances of germination process (Lee 435).
It has been acknowledged that legume type of plants are more sensitive to acidic conditions (Ahmad 5). Mung seeds are from legume type of plants, and that explains why their germination is significantly affected by orange juice acidity.
A number of factors can affect seeds germination. Warmth, catalysts, and inhibitors can affect germination. Low and high temperatures cannot support germination. Temperature of 37 degrees Celsius is enough because it cannot denature the enzymes in the seed. Chemical inhibitors like cyanide stop the germination process by masking the active sites of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis in the germinating seeds. At low temperatures, enzymes are inactive to catalyze any biological process (Bhagat et al. 194).
This experiment is aimed at establishing the role orange juice plays in the germination process of mung seeds in terms of germination rate and the length of roots with time.
Under the same conditions (the same temperature), the rate of mung seeds germination in orange juice will be low in comparison to the control experiment that is done in water. The extension of roots of the seeds in orange juice will also be shorter in comparison to those in water.
Mung seeds in orange juice will show negative results of germination and root length in comparison to the seeds placed in water.
The following materials were utilized:
- Twenty mung seeds
- Two plastic bags
- Orange juice
- Mung seeds in groups of ten were placed in two separate plastic bags.
- The first bag was filled with water while the second one was filled with orange juice as the germination medium.
- The two bags were placed in the same environmental conditions. Room temperature and pressure were the same.
- The length of roots (measured with the help of the ruler) and the number of the germinating seeds in each bag was recorded on a daily basis.
- The outcomes were as given in the tables below.
The results of the experiment are provided in the following tables.
Table 1. Length of Roots
|Days / Solution||Water||Orange juice|
Table 2. Number of Seeds
|Days / Solution||Water||Orange juice|
Orange juice reduces the germination rate of mung seeds according to the results. The maximum germination percentage in orange juice was 8/10, which is 80%, while maximum germination rate in water was 10/10, which is 100%.
The length of roots of mung seeds in orange juice was undersized. The utmost root extension was 1.3 cm while the mung seeds in water had 2.1-centimeter root length. Orange juice reduces the root length of mung seeds by (1.3/2.1) 61.9%.
Hydrolysis in seeds is optimum in conditions close to neutral pH. Such fruit juice as orange juice is acidic and produces additional proton, which is H+. The ions of hydrogen hinder the attraction of hydroxide ion by polysaccharide molecules for hydration (Lee 435).
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The results in the table above are converted and presented graphically (see figure 1, figure 2).
Mung seeds that were placed in fresh water were the control group compared to those mung seeds that were placed in orange juice.
Germination is a slow biochemical process, and this explains the reason there was no germination recorded on the first day. The usual duration of germination is three to six days. The development of seeds to visible level takes up to six or more days. According to the results of the experiment, the utmost number of seeds that germinated was ten. The number ten was reached on the seventh day of the experiment.
Germination is a biochemical reaction that is negatively affected by low pH. Lower pH that is typical of strong acids like orange juice reduces root development in mung seeds and the general germination percentage. Mung seeds germinate optimally at pH near neutral. Water is nearly neutral and its use is associated with the highest germination percentage of mung seeds.
Ahmad, Parvaiz. Legumes Under Environmental Stress: Yield, Improvement and Adaptations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015. Print.
Bhagat, Kiran P., R. Arun Kumar, Pasala Ratnakumar, Satish Kumar, S.K. Bal and P.K. Agrawal. “Photosynthesis and Associated Aspects Under Abiotic Stresses Environment.” Approaches to Plant Stress and Their Management. Ed. R.K. Gaur and Pradeep Sharma. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. 191-207. Print.
Lee, Byong H. Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2014. Print.