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Principles of Nervous System in Animals Essay

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Updated: Apr 14th, 2022

Advantages of Nervous System

Sponges are the only multicellular animals that do not consist of the nervous system and neurons. Research indicates that sponges lack organized tissues and have no organs. The advantages of the nervous systems in animals vary from one animal to the other. The nervous system relates the exterior environment to the body of the animals. The procession and interpretation of the sensory organs is then effected by the nervous system to facilitate an understanding and interpretation of the surrounding. The ‘nerve net’ is illustrated as the most prehistoric and simplest structure of the nervous system in existence. The animals have a means of interacting with each other and with the environment. This is established by the assistance of the nervous system which acts as communication gadget in the animals to learn and adopt to their surroundings with ease.

Different research practitioners give varying findings and conclusions on the evolution and operation of the nervous systems. The presence of non-nervous systems that coordinate with each other is a complicated issue that is yet to yield the full results of its evolution. The evolution and related progression of the nervous system can be defined and illustrated through the cephalization and centralization concepts. Cephalization consists of the actual concentration and accumulation of the functions and structures of the nervous system in the head. Consequently, the centralization of the nervous system indicates the different structural institutes that are collectively centered and organized integrally. The nervous system relates the exterior environment to the body of the animals. The procession and interpretation of the sensory organs is then effected by the nervous system to facilitate an understanding and interpretation of the surrounding.

Disadvantages of Complex Nervous System

In the cases of the nervous systems that are more complex, the presence of centralized nervous systems is common. This results from nerve cords that are longitudinal and arranged in tracts and clusters. The motor neurons tend to widen from the centralization nervous system into the effectors whereas the sensory neurons originate from the periphery section and enters the centralization nervous system. On the other hand, cephalization involves the use of anterior degrees that vary with the concentration of organized nervous systems.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction

There are a number of organisms and plants that uses the asexual reproduction method. There exist various advantages and disadvantages aliened to asexual reproduction. This mode of reproduction requires minimum use of energy during the reproduction process. This is due to the fact that these organs and plants have the different fertilizations organs and uses minimal time and energy to facilitate the fertilization process. The processes of searching for mating partners which are commonly experienced in the case of sexual reproduction do not arise. This is because of the presence of both the female and male organs in the organisms and plants.

The amount of time taken before reproduction takes a lot of time in the case of those organisms that use sexual reproduction. On the other hand, little time is required to facilitate reproduction and the time taken to reproduce again is also minimal. This indicates that the asexual reproduction do not involve the use of time and duration of reproduction process. Sexual reproducing organisms face a lot of environmental challenges and fail to survive in certain occurrences. When faced with harsh and brutal environments, the sexual reproducing organisms have low chances of survival unlike the asexual reproducing organisms which face little and minimal environmental and external hazards. The establishment of asexual reproducing organism in an ideal or suitable area or habitat indicates the high chances of survival and the high rate of reproduction. This means that the asexual reproducing organisms reproduce rapidly when established in relevant and appropriate regions that favor their conditions.

In asexual reproduction, the genetic diversity does not exist due to the self-reproducing characteristics. On the hand, the sexual reproducing organisms take advantage of genetic diversity and multiplication. Variations of production of offspring are minimal due to the presence of individual pollination and reproduction. The organisms involved in the asexual reproduction are disadvantaged in that they adapt to certain environmental conditions and an occurrence of environmental change can lead to extinction. The high rates of reproduction by the asexual reproducing organisms lead to overcrowding and competition for existence. Sexual reproducing organisms face a lot of environmental challenges and fail to survive in certain occurrences. When faced with harsh and brutal environments, the sexual reproducing organisms have low chances of survival unlike the asexual reproducing organisms

Reproductive Systems of Vertebrates and Invertebrates

The main difference between the vertebrates and invertebrates is that vertebrates have backbones whereas invertebrates do not. The vertebrates have a higher rate of adapting to different habitats without constraints. The variations of habitats visited and inhibited by vertebrates are many as compared to those inhibited by invertebrates. Invertebrates are relatively small in size and have limited movement abilities due to their levels of instability. On the other hand, the vertebrates move freely and are bigger in size as compared to the invertebrates. The nervous system of vertebrates is highly stable and developed unlike that of the invertebrates. Consequently, the vertebrates and invertebrates have similarities. They both have notochords which lie along their bodies.

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