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The Economy of Canada
Canada is one of the most highly-developed countries in the world. It is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Britton, 1996). Being the member Group of Eight, Canada is also one of the most influential states. The peculiarities of the governmental approach to the questions of the economic and social life of the country influence the quick progress in these sectors. However, “as an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the U.S. in its market-oriented economic system, the pattern of production, and affluent living standards” (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012).
It is possible to determine two groups of factors that can be considered as important for the development of the state’s economic and social life. The first group includes the factors which are significant for the domestic economy of the country. The economy of Canada bases on the logging, oil, and service industries in which the highest percentage of the population is involved (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). The manufacturing, automobile, and aircraft industries are also considered important for the country’s development.
The second group of factors includes the peculiarities of Canada’s economic relations with the countries of North America. The North American Free Trade Agreement was signed in 1994 (Graham, 2007). Today, “Canada is the U.S.’s largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power” (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012). The USA is the most significant trading partner in Canada.
The economic growth of the country is closely connected with the social aspects and depends on highly skilled employees and workers. Moreover, the role of the Government is also decisive. Canada “has tried to develop a new interdepartmental identity for senior managers by increasing their mobility thought the government, and introduced an executive development program” (Schiavo-Campo & McFerson, 2008, p. 242).
The Governmental Structure of Canada
Canada is a constitutional monarchy that is democratic (Government of Canada, 2011). Thus, “the Head of State is Queen Elizabeth the 2nd, the head of the Commonwealth of Nations” (The structure of the Canadian Government, 2011). The head of the Government is the elected Prime Minister. Canada has a federal system of the parliamentary Government according to which federal, provincial, and territorial governments have the opportunity to function at the governmental level and take the responsibilities (Government of Canada, 2011).
All the federal functions are also divided between the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of the Government. The most powerful branches in the state are Legislative and Judicial ones because the Executive is presented by a group of former members of the parliament and elder statesmen (Derbyshire & Derbyshire, 1996). This group of statesmen “is appointed by the Queen, whose theoretical task it is to oversee the current government” (The structure of the Canadian Government, 2011).
The Legislative branch is represented by the parliament. It is “the democratically elected party which occupies the largest number of seats in the House of Commons” (The structure of the Canadian Government, 2011). The most important state’s questions are discussed by the parliament. Thus, it is the task of the parliament to make decisions which are connected with the policy-making processes, various national issues, and international interest (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005).
Judicial power is represented through the courts of the country in which the courts’ officers act according to the laws of the state. Thus, “the Judiciary is the branch which dispenses justice according to the laws of the country” (The structure of the Canadian Government, 2011). Moreover, the court system of the country allows the citizens of Canada to appeal to the Federal Court of Appeal in order to request a retrial (Government of Canada, 2011).
The Rule of Law
All the principles according to which the parliament and the whole governmental system function, including the principles of federalism, depend on the rule of law in Canada because it is a constitutional monarchy. They are founded on the law system of Britain and on Canada’s aspects of the civil and private law. Thus, the power of the parliament is limited by the constitution (Macdonald, 2007).
There is the division of the legislative abilities between the federal and provincial or local governments. Nevertheless, the constitution of the state permits “the central government to exercise limited control over the provincial governments and also to veto provincial bills, disallow provincial acts and appoint the provincial governors” (Schiavo-Campo & McFerson, 2008, p. 42).
The main principles of the transparency, accountability, participation, and the rule of law in the country are as follows: it is impossible to judge people in different ways because all people are equal before the law; the courts must be unbiased in order to provide the justice; it is significant to stress the judicial independence and the independence of political and executive power while separating three main branches of the governmental system (Ha-Redeye, 2007).
The Canadian laws are developed on the principles of the democratic society and focus on the openness of the courts, the aspects of the court processes which should be publicized and even available to the citizens of the country, the principles of justice, and legacy. Thus, “the law must be applied in a manner consistent with the Supreme law and consistent with the Constitution,” and that is why all the actions provided by the Government should depend only on the rule of law (Ha-Redeye, 2007).
Britton, J. N. H. (1996). Canada and the global economy: The geography of structural and technological change. USA: McGill-Queen’s Press.
Government of Canada. (2011). Canada’s system of Government. Web.
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Derbyshire, J. D. & Derbyshire, I. (1996). Political system of the world. USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
Graham, L. S. (2007). The politics of governing: A comparative introduction. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Ha-Redeye, O. (2007). Rule of law in Canada. Web.
Hofstede, G. & Hofstede G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Macdonald, A. (2007). Outrage: Canada’s justice system on trial. USA: Raincoas Book Dist LTD.
Schiavo-Campo, S. & McFerson H. M. (2008). Public management in global perspective. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe
The structure of the Canadian Government. (2011). Web.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). The world factbook. Web.