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Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends Essay (Article)


Brief Summary

The authors of the article “Is it important to examine crime trends at a local “micro” level?” provide evidence concerning the importance of analyzing macro-level trends (Groff, Weisburd, & Yang, 2010). At the same time, they acknowledge the archetypal model which presupposes that criminology should be focused on large area tendencies. The investigation of these trends will lead to the discovery of new inclinations that are based on the ecological traditions of micro areas (Groff et al., 2010). The most important conclusion of this study is that small-area findings should be analyzed irrespective of the trends that are identified within bigger areas. This study broadens our knowledge in terms of the criminal patterns that are found in micro areas and helps us to comprehend the structure of the concentration of delinquencies better. In other words, the authors of the study noticed that there are several trends at the micro level that have to be re-evaluated and explained about the geographic inconsistency (Groff et al., 2010). The researchers believe that future investigation will help to gain more insight into the criminal patterns and characteristics that are inherent in the micro areas vulnerable to high crime rates.

The two criminological theories that perfectly correlate with the current crime rates are the theories of social control and rational choice. The former is one of the most powerful theories that were developed throughout the history of criminological science. The basis of this theory presupposes that the majority of the crimes can be prevented by legal limitations imposed by the government (Anderson, 2015). Overall, this theory positively affects crime causation and the decrease in the number of delinquencies is visible. If we connect this theory to the article, we may notice that the theory of social control has very little to do with the local crimes when they are evaluated outside the statewide or nationwide trends. The theory of rational choice also positively affected the crime rates on a national scale. The connection between this theory and local crimes is much more evident. The contingency may be explained by peer pressure, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial trends inherent in the local citizens including poverty, family structure, increased anxiety, excessive self-confidence, and discontent with the political regime (Wagner, 2013). The impact of each of these factors varies from one locality to another, but the key finding is that we should use a different scale to assess the impact of delinquencies on the US society within smaller areas, especially in poor neighborhoods.

The ideas of the classical crime causation theory perfectly reflect the realities of small areas that are exposed to high crime rates. In these localities, delinquent decisions are made based on free will (Siegel, 2015). Under the impact of numerous circumstances of varying gravity, the citizens have to deal with the situations that may be perceived as imminent triggers of criminal behavior. The classical theory of crime causation reflects the current crime trends (Anderson, 2015). If we connect it to the reviewed article, we may notice that it also supports the ideas inherent in the aforementioned criminological theories. The issue of an increased number of crimes is contingent on an extensive array of psychosocial and socioeconomic factors (Wagner, 2013). Therefore, it is crucial to be consistent with the punishments and continue promoting them as deterrents for the crimes.

References

Anderson, J. F. (2015). Criminological theories: Understanding crime in America. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Groff, E., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local “micro” level? A longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(1), 7-32.

Siegel, L. J. (2015). Criminology: The core (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Wagner, W. E. (2013). Practice of research in criminology and criminal justice. New York, NY: Sage.

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IvyPanda. (2020, August 10). Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/criminological-theories-and-american-crime-trends/

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"Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends." IvyPanda, 10 Aug. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/criminological-theories-and-american-crime-trends/.

1. IvyPanda. "Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends." August 10, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/criminological-theories-and-american-crime-trends/.


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IvyPanda. "Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends." August 10, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/criminological-theories-and-american-crime-trends/.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends." August 10, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/criminological-theories-and-american-crime-trends/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Criminological Theories and American Crime Trends'. 10 August.

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