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Different Types of Criminological Theories Essay

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The Deterrence theory

The Deterrence theory can be considered the most effective in landlord accountability programs as the warning of punishment may prevent people from committing the crime and decrease the probability or level of offending in society. Punishment affects people to respect the rules and obligations. The theory makes offenders reflect on their actions taking into account the possible outcomes for them. For instance, as long as criminals are informed of the likelihood of a fine, they can compare the benefits and drawbacks of committing the crime. Another view of the modern state’s criminal policy is that a carefully calculated punishment should be invented for each offense to compensate for its consequences. It should be assumed that the deterrent effect depends on the level of discipline – the more severe the punishment, the better the law is enforced. Penalties are mainly related to the sentencing system; they have a preventive effect on crime.

The theory of social disorganization

The theory of social disorganization provides an explanation of crime at the social level, making the psychology of the criminal dependent on society’s processes of functioning as a whole. The growth of crime is the negative consequences of such phenomena of the modern stage of society’s development as the scientific and technological revolution, the processes of urbanization, population migration, and the media’s development. Delinquency decreases with distance from the center and industrial areas; the lowest in residential urban areas, petty property crimes may be concentrated near the criminals’ residence, while more severe property crimes are committed at some distance from it. Criminal behavior, like any other, is learned from those with whom they have a closer connection. The basis of this learning mechanism is the imitation of one’s actions, who is the adolescent’s authority. A person’s specific behavior patterns depending on the degree of the connection with a particular person or a group. When dealing primarily with criminals, the individual is more likely to become a criminal, communicating with law-abiding persons, called differentiated communication. In low areas affected by crime, it is much easier to become a criminal: learn the appropriate techniques, find accomplices.

The Reintegrative Shaming theory

According to the Reintegrative Shaming theory, guilt lies at the base of the social regulation of crime against a person or property. Conversely, instilling a sense of reintegrative shame can become a force shaping society. The concept interpretation is based on the message that the crime should be condemned, not the criminal. It involves a procedure or ceremony of forgiveness, through which the deviant is reunited with a society of law-abiding citizens. The most potent manifestation of reintegrative shame is the perpetrator’s condemnation of the crime, with an appropriate apology to the victim. Criminal obtains the possibility to break with the past, the right to start life is granted only to the criminal who expressed sincere remorse for his crime, apologized to the victim, and repaired the damage caused by him. The repressive institutions of the state, such as police, courts, and the structures of civil society, in this case, Ak-Chin Tribal Council, are the key agents of socialization and social control. They, relying on reintegrative shame installation, can be very useful in confronting violence and crime.

Environmental criminology

In contrast to traditional theories, environmental criminology does not try to identify the underlying causes of crime to explain why a person becomes a criminal. It focuses its research resources on analyzing patterns of motivation, opportunities conducive to crime. Concerning undocumented immigrants, the factors that deter crime are the vulnerability of and fear of deportation. The theory also considers the possibilities of ensuring the safety and protection of victims available at the time of the crime, studying the environment in which the crime’s events take place. About the implementation of the “Immigrant Community Outreach Program,” environmental criminology limits the subject of its study to the time of the offense. It identifies common patterns of behavior and environmental factors associated with these models that can prevent or, conversely, contribute to the attacker’s intentions. It is concerned with a situational approach in criminology and crime analysis.

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