“One-Pot Method”: A Recipe for Meth
One-pot synthesis is a tool for enhancing a chemical reaction that implies a sequence of multi-step reactions occurring in the same environment (Hayashi, 2016). Also known as the cascade reactions, one-pot synthesis presupposes that the necessary steps are carried out in a specific sequence one immediately after another.
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Meth: Negative Effects on the Human Body
As a rule, after a short period of consuming meth, one is likely to experience a change in blood pressure (an increase in the pressure rates is typically the signal of the health problems). The rise in the heart rate can also be viewed as one of the primary effects that CM has on the addict’s body in the first few weeks of the drug abuse. In case the drug addict uses excessively large doses of CM, they are likely to experience seizures and are even exposed to the threat of death because of an overdose.
However, apart from the short-term effects, long-term changes to the human body are in store for the drug addict unless the problem is addressed in a timely and efficient manner. First, the alterations in the blood pressure and the heart rate mentioned above trigger an inevitable damage to the brain and the heart. To be more accurate, the blood vessels that are clogged and overloaded due to the increased pressure cause the vascular system to collapse; heart attacks are typically observed at the identified stage of the addiction development.
Furthermore, in case CM is inhaled through the nasal cavity, the destruction thereof is expected in the long-term perspective. The nose tissues decay, therefore, leading to permanent damage. In case the substance is inhaled through the mouth, lung obstruction is expected in most cases. Decay of tooth is also to be listed among the most common long-term health issues that the consumption of CM triggers. Likewise, malnutrition and the resulting rapid weight loss are to be expected.
Finally, severe damage to the brain tissue needs to be brought up among the most crucial effects that the use of CM has on the body of a drug addict. The changes to the brain tissue, in their turn, affect the rest of the systems of the body on some levels, causing one to experience psychological problems (e.g., depression, psychosis, etc.), as well as developmental disorders (Alzheimer’s disease is typically listed among the primary effects of a long-term consumption of CM).
Bath Salts and BZP and Law Enforcement: Difficulties
Although the idea of using bath salts might seem comparatively innocent, it entails an array of threats to one’s wellbeing. At present, bath salts, also known as plant food and consisting of synthetic cathinone, are used widely in a range of states and are not prohibited legally. Furthermore, the substance can be bought on the internet easily.
Synthetic cathinones (SC), however, are also known for being sold under the name of ecstasy. It should be borne in mind, though, that the powdered version of bath salts, which is advertised to the target audience as ecstasy, is typically mixed with MDMA, or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Liechti, 2015). Therefore, the production of the subject matter can be carried out without the supervision of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) because synthetic cathinones do not qualify as drugs and, therefore, do not require specific supervision.
One must admit, though, that, due to the adverse effect that bath salts have on people’s health, and the drug-like properties that the substances have, the necessity to control the production, distribution, and the further use of SC must become a possibility. Arguably, the possession and the distribution of SC may fall under the jurisdiction of the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act of 1986 because of the drug-like properties of the substance ads the adverse effects that it has on people’s health.
Nevertheless, the process of production, purchase, and consumption of DSC must be put under a more rigid supervision so that the issue of substance abuse could be prevented successfully. Therefore, there is a pressing need in adopting a set of stricter regulations as far as drug peddling is concerned. Particularly, the substances that are not typically viewed as drug-related must be scrutinized closely.
One might argue that the measures aimed at reinforcing the current drug policy may pose numerous obstacles for the people that have been prescribed with the substance and, therefore, need it as a medication. For these purposes, designing an elaborate way of data processing and a detailed database of patients requiring SC must be viewed as a necessity.
Dangers of Tobacco Use: Possible Consequences
Unlike CM mentioned above, tobacco has a significantly milder effect on the human body. Nevertheless, the substance also triggers significant damage to one’s system, the respiratory issues being the key ones. Although the development of lung cancer, which smoking is often linked to, is questionable, researches show that the use of tobacco in cigars, cigarettes, etc., is likely to cause the development of the disease, as well as the disorders of the same level of severity, such as pneumonia with complications (Riley & Augustson, 2012).
Blood vessel clogging is also enhanced by the use of tobacco, especially as far as smoking is concerned. Therefore, it can be assumed that the substance has an indirect effect on one’s increase in the heart rate, blood pressure, and the threat of a stroke. Eventually, the negative effects that smoking has on one’s teeth deserve to be brought up.
Although often viewed as an aesthetic concern rather than health-related one, the problem, in fact, has a much more complex nature. With the decay of teeth, which smoking enhances, issues with the digestion-related processes and organs are to be expected. As a result, the development of the related diseases, including gastric and stomal ulcers, becomes an increasingly possible threat.
Meth, Tobacco, and Central Nervous System: Effects
Apart from affecting the physical health of the patient, both meth and tobacco cause harm to one’s nervous system. In the case of long-term use, the damage caused by meth is irreparable, whereas smoking can be managed at more advanced stages of its progress. As stressed above, meth is likely to lead to a severe depression that may eventually end in a psychosis.
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The identified phenomenon can be explained by the fact that CM inhibits the production of three essential brain chemicals, i.e., dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The identified elements contribute to the creation of the emotions such as content and happiness, allow one to experience pleasure and comfort, and galvanize one to respond to crises adequately. Therefore, by consuming CM, one blocks the production of the hormones mentioned above and, thus, develops severe neurological disorders.
Smoking, though affecting one in a much milder way, also has a direct effect on one’s cognitive and emotional functions. The nicotine contained in tobacco also inhibits the production of serotonin, thus, preventing one from experiencing positive emotions and, consequently, developing depression. Furthermore, anxiety may be viewed as the direct effect of nicotine consumption for the reasons described above. Finally, long-term smoking reduces the level of one’s cognitive abilities.
Hayashi, Y. (2016). Pot economy and one-pot synthesis. Chemical Science, 7(1), 866-880. doi:10.1039/C5SC02913A
Liechti, M. E. (2015). Novel psychoactive substances (designer drugs): Overview and pharmacology of modulators of monoamine signalling. Swiss Medical Weekly, 1(1), 145.
Riley, W., & Augustson, E. M. (2012). Mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase long-term quit rates compared with control programmes, but effects of the interventions are heterogeneous. Evidence-Based Nursing, 16, 108-109. doi:10.1136/eb-2012-101204