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The study of the human genetic composition has helped in developing an inner understanding of the human body and cells. Genetic engineering has assisted in the study of living things and can be credited for the development of better breeds of living things especially in agricultural products. This paper seeks to research on how genes work, the future of humanity based on genetic study as well as the scope of genetic functions.
How genes work
Genes are commonly known as the blueprints of life (Boyle par. 4). They are called the so due to several reasons but the major reason is because they tell the human body cells what to do and when to do it (Boyle par. 6). In a nutshell, all of our body functions are determined and controlled by genes. Genes work by making proteins and it is correct to say that every gene is a recipe for making a particular protein (Boyle par. 2). The importance of a gene is emphasized by the fact that 50% of the hard weight of cells is protein. The uses of proteins in the body are numerous including and they include heavy lifting, digestion, and communication between cells among others.
Genes are responsible for giving cells instructions while proteins carry out these instructions. Each protein performs a particular function and for a cell to perform a new task, a new protein must be created for the task (Boyle par. 2). If a cell needs a task to be performed faster or slower, then it gives more or less proteins the responsibility to discharge the duty. Genes are responsible for telling the cells which protein is appropriate to make (Boyle par. 2).
Where geneticists think the humanity is heading
Geneticists have been of great help in demystifying some of the greatest world’s assumptions about humanity. For instance, the human genome project determined that the world’s assumption on genetic difference based on race was false. They found out that there is no genetic difference between blacks, whites, Arabs, among all other racial groups. The study of genetics has helped scientist to study human behaviour in the past but most importantly, it is helping in future human behavioural projections. There have been debates among geneticists about how the intellectual capacity of humans is on the decline.
According to Boyle “Humans have so many genetic mutations that we are less intelligent than our ancestors, and it is getting worse” (par. 1). Boyles argues that human intelligence is on the decline compared to our ancestors (par. 3). This is all caused by the looming genetic mutations during the past millennia which have seen the increasing decline in human intelligence and emotional aptness (Boyle par. 3). Geneticists projects that humanity is headed on a declining trend with regard to intellectual suitability and the situation is getting worse.
The human brain is made up of thousands and thousands of genes and mutation in a single gene can result in an impairment of the brain process (par. 6). Every new generation has new mutations and this factor is said to be causing the intelligence degradation in humans. Geneticists are projecting a further decline in human intelligence in the future although they all agree it will take some time for this to happen.
What the future holds
Scientists are considering the use of genetic engineering to treat individuals ailing from genetic disorders (Boyle par. 10). This process is called gene therapy but it is an experimental medical technique currently. The future seems to be good for genetic engineering since it has been proven that genes can be replaced to influence or produce new traits in a cell (Boyle par. 11). However, with the looming mutations, scientists cannot rule out the possibilities of further changes in the human genetic makeup. Unfortunately it is difficult to tell if these changes will impact humanity negatively or positively. A mutation can have influence on either the human behavioural characteristics.
What genes can do and cannot do
Genes’ have helped scientists in determining blood types; hence they can know the effects of combining different alleles. This has helped in blood transfusion by averting tragic occurrences influenced by the wrong genotype (Boyle par. 14). Genes dictate the human physical features unless the features are as a result of injury and surgery or other acquired deformities. Genes are the determining factors with regard to height of an individual, colour, and the shape of the nose, ears and all other physical features in the human body and all living things. Genes help in passing on paternal and maternal historic characteristics to the children as family history is written in our genes (Boyle par. 15).
This paper has engaged in an insightful research on several aspects of the study of genes. The paper has established how the genes work and their role and formation in the human cells. Based on information derived from the study of the genetic trends over the years, geneticists are anticipating some changes in the human intellect build-up. In this essay, such projections have been evaluated and presented very clearly. The paper also gives an account of the future expectations as geneticists have projected. This is based on genetic mutations in different generations.
Boyle, Rebecca 2012, Are People Getting Dumber? One Geneticist Thinks So. Web.