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Liu Dapeng, Sun Yat-sen, and Tang Qunying Thoughts
The Chinese Revolution is famous because it lasted for an extremely long time, and covered numerous territories. China’s bizarre feature during the 1980s refers to the coexistence of capitalism and communism. Conventionally, the revolution began with the 1839 Opium War and came to an end after Mao Zedong died in the year 1976.
Considering that the revolution was a protracted conflict, it had few rivals (Bergere 17). These include the French Revolution, the American Revolution that resulted in the 1861 Civil War, and finally in the 1958 Voting Rights Act. It is worth noting that narrating the fall of old and rise of the novel Chinese nation took several decades. Numerous transformations took place during that period.
Tang Qunying (1871) associated herself with Sun Yat-Sen’s revolution, which was in denial of the Qing dynasty in Japan in 1905. By then, she was a student and a young widow.
She has fought for women’s equality and rights between the 1910s and 1920s. She often grew mad when an elite visitor came to have a photograph of her since the visitor considered her a hero of the 1911 Revolution (Bergere 251). She once remarked to her daughter-in-law that people were extremely different since they did not take into account the people, nation and women’s liberation.
She regarded their behavior as sad and shameful, and that they only talked and thought about their creature comforts. During her political life, Tang had participated actively in many activities, and she fought aggressively for women’s rights. Her death was slightly before the Nanjing government included global female and male suffrage in the draft constitution (Bergere 29).
According to Yat- sen, China’s enormous size and the borders had inadequate defense, and it was a reflection of the national governance challenges. Moreover, there were no chances for political careers and individual growth.
The author acknowledges that China has a certain pattern of feelings and ideas about authority and power (Vogel 592). Together, these feelings and ideas made political navigation from monarchy to the republic, and from empire to nation, extremely challenging. The suffragist Qunying struggled hard for the rights of women, with thousands of women behind this fight.
It is worth noting that men never made any efforts to consider both sexes as equal and full citizens (Spence 5). Tang and Sun possessed the talent of drawing public attention, as well as effective leadership styles. The two persons had common loyalty bonds as their guiding principles were against marriage or romance. Assessing their lives is a perfect chance to identify separate and shared women’s and men’s experience in Chinese Revolution.
Openness and Reform Policies
The development policies in China can only be recognized through using institutional economics’ perspectives (Vogel 29). Therefore, keen attention has to be paid to the cultural, political and historical contexts, where there has been extreme economic development.
There are numerous political events which resulted in 1978 China’s decision to initiate economic reforms. This also includes how Deng Xiaoping planned to usher the new developments. Communist Party leaders who had authority in China successively prolonged the development policies that Deng had.
Since the year 1978, there have been exceptional institutional transformations in China. The changes have been extremely successful in enhancing economic growth, as well as advancing worldwide status. China has acquired institutional transformation in a planned and methodical manner.
This has affected the economic system immensely. On the same note, the structure of the political system in China still remains the same. It is also worth noting that China is still a one-party state, with a heavy reliance on Communist Party leadership guidance for directions (Spence 135).
Institutional economists argue that a country’s development can be better comprehended by scrutinizing the manner in which its institutions develop and transmute, or absence of these. Therefore, there is the need to monitor the economic, social, and political settings. The significance of this vital role is evident in the case of China, where the government possesses an extremely vital role in reforming the institutions, beginning from 1978.
“Extremely few people in 1978 could have reflected on the social and economic progress that China would have achieved in the consequent thirty years, after introducing open- door policies, and embarking on economic restructurings” (Vogel 342).
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The sole aim of the reforms in China was to come up with Chinese characteristic socialism. The reforms led to transformation of the economy in China (Bergere 67). The transformation of the economy moved from the one where the market forces were virtually passive, to the one where the forces played extremely vital roles.
Moreover, China virtually lacked foreign investment and had an extremely low level of global exchange and trade. Currently, China is a key international foreign investment recipient. In addition, its foreign exchange reserves, as well as trade are extremely high compared to national production level (Vogel 83). Various indicators prove that China’s economic welfare has been growing quickly for the past 30 years.
Therefore, Vogel (459) asserts “a political leadership transformation was vital for bringing about the novel economic changes.” In the absence of transformations in the political system, China would still be in the old economic groove, possess a negative world outlook, and well- worn philosophies (Spence 35). Hence, the political transformations have been extremely essential in the making China more receptive to novel ideas.
The economic transition and growth in China poses intriguing social scientist questions. In reality, the central leadership in China has enabled appointment of top provincial officials. Moreover, central- provincial fiscal associations can be reconfigured. The immense growth has enabled the expansion of the middle- class in the social realm. However, the increased inequality sharpened class conflicts and social cleavages. Rising social conflicts and sharpened social cleavages
Deng Xiaoping’s Rise and fall and Rise, and Rae Yang’s Memoir
Rae Yang is a former Red Guard in China. His memoir represents a tale of lies, love and idealism under Mao. China did not go mad just once. In the memoir, Spider Eaters, it is evident that lunatics have authority in asylums. Once, when Yang was travelling in a train, a revolution took place. This purposed at unveiling the class status and family background of travelers in the sleeping compartments. Non- soldiers, workers of lower and poor middle- class peasants gave up their beds, unlike individuals from the high class.
Funny enough, Yang’s book has a twisted and terrifying impact. Old women and men, as well as class enemies who were running away from Beijing got beaten and thrashed off the train. She saw an old woman who had grey hair and blood pouring from her head mishandled by a girl who was approximately sixteen years. Yang pities the old woman, but acknowledges that violence was necessary and inevitable to ensure a veritable revolution (Spence 50).
For seven months, Yang had experienced awful things. However, she says that these were the most memorable and delightful months in her lifetime. Her generation lost immense things. Conversely, Yang confesses that although the achievements are hard to narrate, they have vital value since they are an experience; inner strength. My opinion is that the memoir is a compelling and complicated story that concerns a young lady whose eyes painfully and slowly open to face the truth.
Similar to other young Chinese, Yang joined Mao’s revolution, with the belief that the result would be a better society. In her imagination, there was an idea of a clean and better society, which was free from corruption and bureaucracy. She narrates that Mao had sent them to the countryside so that they could familiarize themselves with countryside experiences and peasants. The main lesson gathered from the peasants was that the party was lying. However, Yang was not sure whether Mao intended this to be their lesson.
There are numerous ordinary people in China who have done a lot and contributed to China’s history, but have not yet been recognized in history books. They possess immense witness to history, and have inherited the community’s folk memory which they will pass down to their children. Ordinary people are never aware of the life their leaders lead.
It is worth noting that Deng Xiaoping fell that there was a whopping contradiction between the sector’s modernization, and the prevailing policies during the CR. Although there was a solution for CR inequities, Mao and “Gang of Four” were a challenge (Vogel 67).
The critical contradiction revelations occurred in November 1975, when there was the rightists’ movement powers counterattack, and Deng Xiaoping’s criticism. There are numerous individuals who contributed to the civilization in China. Presently, they are honored because of their efforts.
Bergere, Marie- Claire. Sun Yat-sen. London: Stanford University Press, 2000. Print.
Spence, Jonathan. Mao Zedong a life. New York: Penguin Group, 2004. Print.
Vogel, Ezra. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. New York: Harvard University Press, 2011. Print.