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The pathophysiology of cluster headache is complex and cannot be identified precisely; however, the most popular theories describe such states as abnormal functioning of hypothalamus, vascular dilation, circadian effects, trigeminal nerve stimulation, and histamine release that may bring about unilateral temporal and periorbital pain that continues up to 2 hours (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2015).
Symptoms and Signs
Pain on one side of the head (burning, sharp or steady), pain around one eye, red or swollen eyes, tearing, rhinorrhea or stuffy nose, burning face.
Lab and Diagnostic Tests
Neurological examination is required to assess brain function, reflexes, and senses. In complicated cases, CT scan (using X-rays to make cross-sectional pictures of the brain) and MRI may be recommended (Dunphy et al., 2015).
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