The connection between energy consumption and such indices as energy efficiency (EE), cooling degree days (CDDs) and heating degree days (HDDs) has been explored in multiple studies. The research by Craig and Feng studied this connection, too. Energy efficiency savings are normally expected to decrease electricity demand. However, Craig and Feng observed no significant impact of EE savings, CDDs, and HDDs on electricity consumption in Montana.
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This might be due to the research methods and the specific characteristics of the obtained data. It can be assumed that the locations reported for the study represent the variability of effects, i.e. positive and negative correlations between energy consumption and the indices stated above. As a result, the average data fail to represent the actual causation. Also, the research operated yearly data, which is not representative of the effects of such factors as CDDs and HDDs because their impact should be observed on monthly data due to the temperature variations during a year.
The state that exhibited the strongest relationship between CDDs and residential electricity consumption in South Carolina. The relationship is observed by comparing the correlation between CDDs and electricity consumption to the corresponding index in other states of the sample.
Crain observed the negative relationship between the kW h consumption per consumer (residential electricity consumption) and the indirect cost for energy efficiency, which includes such expenses as marketing and administration for the conduction of electricity efficiency programs. The negative relationship means that the kW h consumption per consumer for heating is decreasing, along with the dynamics that more money is spent on programs associated with energy efficiency initiatives.
The downward trend in HDDs suggests that there are fewer cold days that require energy for heating. At the same time, the upward trend in CDDs suggests that the demand for electricity for cooling on cold days of the year is growing. The two-step model of the CDDs positive relationship, according to Craig, explained 33.6 % of the variation of residential energy consumption for cooling. These data comply with the recent global climate change studies as they demonstrate evidence for the increase of mean temperatures. Most importantly, this data, combined with the results of the previous studies by the same author, support the idea that climate and climate change impact on energy consumption and savings (particularly, residential electricity) significantly. However, this impact yet needs to be explored more thoroughly in further studies.
The article explores the effects of curriculum-based learning on environmental literacy and energy consumption. The authors reviewed a series of relevant studies to establish the theoretical framework for their research and define which learning models and methods are most effective to achieve environmental literacy and energy consumption. First of all, it was suggested that holistic behavior-based initiatives should be applied, e.g. experimental learning and curriculum deployment. Students should be regarded as agents of social change because they can affect the behavior of their peers and adults, which was observed in social consciousness programs, such as energy efficiency programs.
Another component of the theoretical framework was that the concepts of behavioral change and feedback are crucial for energy conservation initiatives because the implementation of energy efficiency measures without considering those concepts was counterproductive, i.e. recipients displayed less willingness to participate in energy conservation. Therefore, the theoretical examination of the topic provided the perspective that environmental literacy and energy consumption programs require inclusive learning and measures of environmental behavioral change.