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Research question and hypothesis
Endosymbioses have remarkably changed the eukaryotic life processes, while it has impacted negligibly on prokaryotic evolution. In this paper by examining the flows of protein families, I try to proof that the double-membrane, gram-negative prokaryotes derived from a symbiosis between an archaic clostridium and actinobacterium.
The subsequent taxon has been efficient and has greatly changed the development of life by producing endosymbionts important for the appearance of eukaryotes and the evident genome transit into them indicate a common evolutionary basis for their derivation: endosymbiosis involving actinobacterium and clostridium (Lake 967).
Endosymbionts in their capacity as a functional module, they are able to alter the metabolic and the structural characteristics of their host (8).
Endosymbiotic guest possess some new signaling and metabolic potential. Such new prospects can be accomplished by introduction of fresh coding DNA, or via the production of extra membrane acquired through endosymbioses. The potential to produce additional cellular compartments identifies endosymbioses from recurring cycles of gene transfer including transduction, transformation and conjugation (Lake 967)..
Researchers believe that the double-membrane prokaryotes were derived through endosymbiosis. In that case, the genomic identity of the endosymbioses might persistently be sufficient to be monitored in phylogenetic restructuring. In this regard, I restructure the development of the duo-membrane prokaryotes by employing techniques capable of segregating between rings derived from endosymbioses, and trees resulting from clonal development.
These techniques differentiate rings from trees by evaluating protein families or gene, absences and resences. These techniques share many similarities as well as various differences from tree reconstruction algorithms that apply amino acid and nucleotide changes (Lake 968).
Incase the double-membrane prokaryotes were a derivative of endosymbiosis, obviously the release of genes by the two donors into the protodouble-membrane-prokaryote would not correlate with any tree since branches per tree must deviate from one node denoting a common familial organism.
Conversely, an endosymbiosis, signifying the genomic union of two different organisms into unit organism, arises from two distinct nodes signifying the guest and the host. Therefore, endosymbiosis produces rings instead of trees in consistent with that of the eukaryotic ring of life. However, if the current analysis were to reconstruct a tree instead of a ring an endosymbiosis mechanism would be disqualified, so that a basic test for an endosymbiosis will be provided.
Alternatively, if the binary membranes are indicators of an ancient endosymbiosis, the question as to which prokaryotes ware involved as both the host as well as the guest, emerges. Since, the genes can enter into the new organism from two distinct donors through endosymbiosis, phylogenic testing can help establish the donors. In event of endosymbiosis, the dual donor taxa enclosing the clade of dual-membrane prokaryotes would relate with the taxa (Lake 968).
Determining the endosymbiont from the taxa in the ring is challenging. For instance, in reconstruction involving a ring made of five taxa, any would pass as an endosymbiont. Nevertheless, it has been shown that the presence-absence test can identify the direction of the gene flow (Lake 968).
In endosymbiosis mechanism, a person expects to observe genes entering into the endosymbiont from the two donors. Therefore if genes were shown to enter the binary-membrane prokaryotes from the two donors, then exclusively this pattern will correspond with a binary-membrane endosymbiotic derivation. Consequently, gene presence-absence test can specially determine the endosymbiont so that a third level of evidence for endosymbiosis is provided.
Lake, James, A. Evidence for an early prokaryotic endosymbiosis. 460(20). pp. 967-071. 2009. Print. doi:10.1038/nature08183.