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What is a global city
A global city can be defined as a city whereby the globalization concept has gained roots and people from diverse cultures are present in that particular city and they live like a community without conflicts. To get the real meaning of a global city, the term globalization is divided with particular regards to planned geographic locations that enhance global activities formation and facilitation. Under global city, the connections binding it is said to have an undeviating and substantial consequence on global dealings mainly the way of life of different people and politics in that city. Globalization can be defined as a trend towards a more integrated global economic system that occurs with increased disregard for national borders and state boundaries.
The growing economic interdependence among various countries marks increased globalization and this has also led to the development of global cities around the globe including Adelaide. Because of development of advanced technology the world has increasingly become a global village and thus international business concept has come up. This aspect has seen the growth of global cities all over the world. (Murray, 2006).
Features of a global city
The following are features of a global city; the first feature is that of the city being international that is well known all over the world. People can easily recognize that city is in any particular country without searching or asking for it for example in geographical books. The other common feature is that the city is actively involved in international dealings globally. The other feature is that of a large population in that city with diverse cultures normally referred to as a metropolitan city. This is evident where the population living in that city is large and they conduct their activities without conflicts. Another common feature of a global city is that of superior transportation networks including highly developed international airports that can serve the city and the rest of the world. (Berrol, 1997).
Another feature is that of the presence of financial institutions for example the IMF, presence of law firms and stock exchanges within that city, and presence of corporate headquarters e.g. New York has the headquarters of U.N. The other feature is that of the presence of global-renowned establishments of culture for example museums and big universities and colleges within that particular city. The other feature is that of the presence of dominant and high-ranking media bodies with worldwide contact. A good example is that of CNN and BBC, New York Times, The Guardian press media services. The other common characteristic is that of a successful sporting community which may include soccer premier leagues, athletics associations, and the city’s ability to host any sporting events which attracts many countries for4 example the soccer World Cup and Athletic Olympic Games. However, it is not prudent for anyone to conclude that a global city must possess all or some of the above features but there are other salient features like provision of better-quality services within any particular city that may include marketing, accounting, finance, and law among others by multinational corporations. (Bryce-Laporte, 1980).
Adelaide South Australia Status
According to research conducted in 1999 by Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC), a group based at Loughborough University in Loughborough, Leicestershire, England reports indicated that Adelaide city in southern Australia has minimal evidence of being a global city though it is viewed to be growing rapidly. Adelaide city is reported to have been founded in the year 1836 and is the fifth major metropolitan in Australia which is argued to be the largely heavily populated city of South Australia. The city is recorded to be having a population of about 1,105,839 by the year 2006 with a density estimated at 615/Km² and is located 2,700 Km east of Sydney and is also reported that it was named after Queen Adelaide. There is now much evidence that Adelaide city is becoming a global city because of the nature of activities undertaken in the city that includes festivals, production, and consumption of wines, the presence of sports, and arts features that have attracted many people within Australia and outside this country. This city has also been utilized as the Australian government and commercial center whereby there are numerous government and financial foundations which serve the whole country of Australia and the rest of the world. (Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, 1999).
It is evident that Adelaide’s city over the past few years has grown and it matches some of the biggest global cities in the world presently. The urban layout of Adelaide has consistently developed over the past few years and can now be compared to that of other cities like Sydney, Melbourne, New York, and London among others. The lighting in the city has been enhanced significantly and also the road network has been improved to meet the requirements of being a global city. For example, the city is accredited with the presence of multi-lane roads which have made the transportation efficient and effective because there is the reduced jam of traffic within the Adelaide city. This development has led to the city coping with the increasing growth of the city because of the ever-increasing population within the city. However, the urban layout according to some analysts does not contest with that of Melbourne or London as the latter are considered to be superior.
Adelaide city is said to be one of the countries centers governed by eighteen local government areas and this city plays the role of administering the Central Business District. It is also rated as the oldest Australian municipal authority and from the year 1840, its first mayor being James H. Fisher after which they elected a Lord Mayor in the year 1919 and the city’s current Lord Mayor is Michael Harbison. Due to the city’s corporation with the state government, we find that in the year 2006 the state created a ministry for the Adelaide city council to provide for the facilitation of its collaboration with the government of Australia to improve its image. This city council is also governed by the Australian’s parliament Capital City Committee which has the objective of planning for the city’s urban development and growth. (Bogen, 1988).
This city has been rated as a global city due to its record of more than 1,200,000 populations as reported in the country’s 2006 census. The city’s population is said to be occupants of more than three hundred thousand houses among which some of them are semi-detached while others are townhouses and various apartments. The city is considered as a global city with its people who are most often identified as Christians where the majority of them are Catholics by denomination while others are Anglicans. This population is also composed of more than 20% of Adelaideans who are born overseas that is they originated from England, Italy, Scotland, Vietnam, and Greece thus making the city’s most spoken languages far from English to be Italian, Vietnamese, Mandarine, Italian and Cantonese.
Also, the economy of this city is well known to be concentrated on the manufacturing industries, defense technology, research exportation of commodities, and also the presence of industries that provide corresponding services to the nation. Adelaide city compared to other Australian cities carries manufacturing industries that have plants for automobile manufacturers such plants include General Motors, Holden, and Mitsubishi. Other plants available in the city apart from that of the automobile are the medical equipment and electronic production components. With such developments, Adelaide city is now viewed to be developing fully to a full global city. The city also has major companies such as the South Australian Northern Territory Oil Search widely known as the Santos, Coopers, South Australian brewery, the Harris Scarfe which is the countries major national retailer among the big companies. There is also the countries second largest investment company the Argo Investments Limited which fully elevates the standard of the city to be international. This city also acts as a center for over 60% of the countries defense companies such as the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, military research institutions, and other defense organizations like Australian Submarine Corporation, Tenix among others, and these industries are said to be contributing to the countries Gross State Product. (Newton, 1997).
The city’s population does not face an employment crisis like some other cities in the country and here we find that more than 60% of the people are working as full-time employees while 35% work as part-time employees. Though there have been records claiming that there has been a gradual increase in part-time employment the city has developed immensely over the past few years. Recent research conducted says that above 15% of the workers have been employed in the manufacturing plants, five percent are employed in construction industries, fifteen percent work in retail trade, eleven percent work in business services, twelve percent in health organizations and community services, and the education sector holding the least percentage of employees that is seven percent. Adelaide city has a percentage of 8.3% of those who are unemployed as compared to that of the Northern suburbs. According to the research, we find that the living and housing costs are rated to be lower compared to that of Sydney city, Melbourne, and other cities around the world. (Toney, 1998).
Adelaide has kept a good record of education whereby we find that its education is offered by several public and private schools that are usually monitored by the state government and South Australian Certificate of Education. Among the schools, there are those which are under the administration of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program. In this case, we find that the city has a bigger number of schools that are under the International Baccalaureate in Australia. The city has several universities too including the University of Adelaide which is found to be a member of the eight centers which focus on the offering of non-university higher education; the university is one of the oldest universities in Australia. The city has several universities and institutions offering Australian and United States degrees this has made the city have a global recognition of being a city of education. In this case, we find that some of these courses offered include information technology and government management. (Toney, 1997).
The other aspect that makes the city global in nature is the issue of culture that is the way of life practiced by the population living in this city. Because of the city being among the first cities to attract foreign immigrants for example from Germany who was said to main followers of Lutherans the city is occasionally termed as the city of churches. Research indicates that immediately after Second World War many new immigrants were reported and included Italians, Dutch, poles, and the Greeks. Also report indicates that after the Vietnam War many people from Asia in communities jammed the city. With such diverse people, culture in Adelaide has evolved and it is now viewed to be of a high standard and research indicates that it has now matched the status of other cities like New York and Melbourne among others. The city is rich with art scenes and usually, there is an event known as the Royal Adelaide Show which is believed to have been started in the 19th century. This show has progressed to be a nationwide event and it is usually held every September annually. Also, Adelaide city boosts several well-known musicians who are reported to have achieved both countrywide and international celebrity. Furthermore, the music in the city has been argued to be among the best in Australia beating those from Sydney and Melbourne. Good examples of the bands that exist in the city and have attracted people from different countries and include Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, Adelaide Youth Orchestra, and the Testeagles among others. (Allen, & Lois, 1998).
The other aspect that has enhanced the status of the city being global is that of the presence of known media that serves the city. Newspapers, Television, and Radio stations have been fully established and the residents of the city get up-to-date information. The most popular newspaper in Adelaide is The Advertiser which is published by News Corporations daily from Monday to Saturday while the most selling Sunday paper is that of Sunday Mail. Research indicates in Adelaide city five television stations serve the entire Australian state and there more than fifteen radio stations that are said to be serving this diverse metropolitan area. (Traub, 1982).
Another aspect that makes Adelaide city global is the dimension of sport which has boosted the city’s global nature for example the city hosted the Formula 1 Australian Grand Prix which was held in the periods between 1985 and 1995. This boosted the pride of the city and many people have admired its status. Also, there is an Australian league in Australia in and the city is recorded to be home to some of these league teams notably Adelaide Crows and Port Adelaide Power. This implies that the city matches the status of some cities like London in England and Paris in France. There are also some basketball teams; Adelaide 36ers and Adelaide Lightning which participate in the national basketball competition. (Knight, 1982).
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In conclusion, we can therefore deduce that Adelaide city over the past few years has attained the global city status. This development has attracted several people from different cultures around the globe. The concept of globalization has led to the growth of the city as a result of the investment that has seen the city transform immensely to a global rank.
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