According to the report conducted by Eurobarometer, mobile telephones are considered as mobile communication masts (65). About 59 % of respondents recognize that mobile handsets contribute to creating electromagnetic fields (EMF) (Eurobarometer 67). Specific threat constitutes mobile phones antenna and stations that expose radiation (Krawczyk 255).
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Eurobarometer has fixed that about 58 % of the participants consider power lines as the main source of EMFs (64). Power lines transmission exposes non-ionizing magnetic radiation which is harmful to people. If a high-voltage power line has a positive polarity, the human body can develop a negative charge, which can distort field lines, making those highly intense (Krawczyk 56).
Microwaves can penetrate the tissues of humans and other living beings within a 0.3 mm – 300 mm range, depending on the intensity (Krawczyk 264). Microwave ovens and radiofrequency phones are among the potential sources of electromagnetic radiation.
It is a well-known fact that X-rays expose an ionizing radiation which has a dangerous impact on human health. In particular, morphological distortion of cellular structure of the organism is one of the effects of X-ray radiation (Krawczyk 71). Therefore, irradiation decreases chances for survival. Medical X-rays, therefore, can be the main sources of radiation and it has a serious impact on human health.
One of the major sources of infrared radiation is the sun because this kind of waves is produced under high temperatures. Exposure, therefore, occurs from such heat sources as lamps, furnaces, and molten metals (Office of Technology Assessment 97). Overall, infrared radiation increases the function of temperatures and, therefore, it has a potential threat to humans.
AM And FM Radios
It has been assumed that AM and FM radio transmit high rates of RF energy (Office of Technology Assessment 98). Though the radio antennas expose high levels of radiation, they are set predominantly on high towers. Nevertheless, human absorb some amount of radiofrequency energy.
Wireless applications, particularly Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, have potential threat to the human organism. Harmful energies emitted by these devices negatively influence the normal functioning of an organism. Hence, because our organism contains about 70 % of salt, which increases the electric conductivity (The Center for the Future, n. p.).
Short Term Effects
Headaches and fatigues are the main shortcomings of non-ionizing radiation. They are often caused by AM and FM radio stations emitting microwaves. Microwave ovens are also among the sources causing headaches.
Hair loss can occur as a result of MRI therapy where a significant doze of radiation is consumed by human organism (Zamanian and Hardiman 22). Because of cellular damage, radiation therapy has a number of side effects and hair loss is among those.
The use of infrared radiation and magnetic resonance imaging do not officially recognize the possibility of harmful impact on human health. Nevertheless, inappropriate use of MRI therapy can lead to RF burns because of induced currents being placed on skin surface accidentally (Zamanian and Hardiman 22).
Tissue heating and burning can also be the result of optical radiation. The point is that an intense level of optical radiation can lead to electron excitation. Electrons on the body surface absorb energy from the optical sources resulting in tissue burning and heating. In addition, abnormal redness and retinal injury are among other effects of optical radiation. Finally, solar radiation is also the main reason for skin burn, cataract formation, aging, and retinal degeneration (Zamanian and Hardiman 23).
While comparing different extents to which human health can be influenced by magnetic fields, stress is among insignificant changes. In particular, harmful effect of human health can be caused of microwave radiation, which leads to stress formation and neurological diseases (Krawczyk 86).
Vomiting can be caused by an extreme influence of gamma rays emission. Overexposure of radioactive substances can cause significant distortion of digestive system (Zamanian and Hardiman 20).
Long Term Effects
Microwave communication chains generate energy within 60 GHz (Zamanian and Hardiman 22). They can cause tissue heating due to RF exposures. In particular, a human eye is sensitive to microwave energy. As a result, the influence of microwave radiofrequency on eyes can lead to cataracts, especially when the exposure is of extremely high frequency (Zamanian and Hardiman 22).
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Tissue damage can also be caused by Ultraviolet radiation due to overexposure or excess duration of radiation on skin. Because of significant biological effects, there is an assumption that Ultraviolet radiation belongs to ionizing radiation.
Due to the increased use of mobile handsets, human health is under the threat of radio-frequency emissions that have a negative influence on blood pressure, hear rates, and capillary perfusion. In the course of research studies and empirical observations, Lucking, et al. have defined that the impact of mobile phone radiation on the right hemisphere contributes to increased activity that has a negative impact on blood pressure (1857).
According to Krawczyk, “electromagnetic field energy absorb directly in human body included in body electric currents and heap up of tissue” (63). In this respect, blood pressure disturbance is the main consequences of the presented instabilities.
Cellular damages are usually caused by ionizing radiation, such as X-rays (Zamanian and Hardiman 22). One of the mains threats to human threat is caused by ionizing radiation. It contributes to chemical change of the human cells. This is of particular concern to X-ray radiation.
The impact of electromagnetic fields on human health can also be in the form of cellular damages leading cancer diseases. The probability of skin cancer, therefore, can be the result of solar radiation. Aside from solar energy, the threat of cancer can be associated with x-rays radiation.
Specifically, it has been defined that x-rays can cause skin cancer and leukemia because of radioactivity exposure (Zamanian and Hardiman 23). RF exposure concerns are also associated with negative effects on human health, particularly on the development of brain cancer. A number of researchers have defined that a cancer risk can be connected to EMR in increased wattage levels.
Despite the presented beliefs, it has been defined that some types of wireless communication, such as radio stations do not have sufficient power to cause threats to human health (Zamanian and Hardiman 21).
Ruiz-Gomez and Martinez-Morillo have reviewed two types of researches – epigenetic and genotoxic – to define the harmful effect of magnetic fields on DNA structure (202). Judging from the results, genotoxic studies revealed DNA strand breaks caused by magnetic fields.
A higher degree of threats has been presented in epigenetic studies proving the negative impact of magnetic fields on DN (Ruiz-Gomez and Martinez-Morillo 203). In addition, the studies have also involved the conditions under which magnetic fields cause DNA damage, including duration of exposure, frequency of exposure, and its intensity. Despite the difference of exposure conditions and other criteria, the impact of magnetic fields on DNA structure is still evident.
Government and Industry
According to the policies introduced by U.S. federal and state governments, all facilities and equipment emitting magnetic radiation should correspond to the existing exposure guidelines (Eurobarometer 86). In addition, the role of public authorities should be increased in handing the issues of public safety and protection. In Europe, significant emphasis is placed on national authorities that should work out effective strategies aimed at preventing the exposure of electromagnetic field radiation (Eurobarometer 88).
Proper Power Lines Locations
With regard to the above, the location of high-voltage power lines should be far from the population aggregate to minimize the hazardous influence on human health (Zamanian and Hardiman 21). Workers working with electricity should also follow the accepted rules and wear specific clothes protecting them from radiation.
Proper Cell Phones Towers Locations
Regarding the use of cell phones, it is purposeful to introduce generally accepted recommendations for establishing safety standards for products (Eurobarometer 88). The development of international guidance for public protection and health promotion is also indispensible to minimizing the threats of electromagnetic fields influence.
To Reduce EMF Exposure
It is important to provide a strong financial support for research aimed at measuring the effects of EMF exposure and introducing strategies for minimizing its effect on human health. Research practice, therefore, can also be beneficial for working conditions and increased reliability of scientific evidence. Overall,
To Reduce Extremely Low Frequencies Exposure
The studies dedicated to the analysis of harmfulness of low frequency exposures are also important for defining its potential threat to human health. Because low frequencies exposures are produced by microwaves, it is rational to introduce studies dedicated to this field.
Minimizing Cell Phone Usage
The use of cell phones should be minimized to an acceptable extent. This is of particular concern to people who have cardio implants that can be significantly damaged by frequent use of mobile handsets. In this respect, Krawczyk states that mobile communication technologies are connected with the “…possibility to appear interference of external electromagnetic fields from UMTS mobile phone with the function of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator” (255). In addition, tissue heating, headaches, and stresses can also be avoided to reduce the impact.
Measuring EMFs Levels at Home
Electromagnetic fields can be easily measured. They can be found near the wiring cables, sockets, and switches. Higher levels of electromagnetic field can be detected towards the ceiling (Earthcalm n. p). These areas can be measure EMF around the cables. In order to reduce the influence of electromagnetic fields, screened cables installation can be the right solution. By covering the walls with a screening paint, it is possible to earth the electromagnetic fields.
EMF Protection Devices
Scalar home. Scalar home is a device that protects homes from EMF emissions (Earthcalm n. p.). The protector, therefore, creates a peaceful and calm atmosphere at home.
Quantum Cell. The Quantum Cell is a radiation protector (Earthcalm n. p). The working principle of the device consists in grounding the nervous system into the electromagnetic field of the Earth while restoring the natural resonance.
Omega Wi-Fi. The Omega Wi-Fi is another effective device that can ensure the protection throughout the house. Once you have plugged the device into the network, everyone within this network is also protected (Earthcalm n. p). As a result, the Omega Wi-Fi decreases the frequency of headaches, reduces probability of brain cancer and creates a favorable setting for restful sleep.
It should be stressed that electromagnetic fields emissions have a potential influence on human health. However, little studies have been designed to provide strong evidence to harmful effects. In particular, no specific evidence is found concerning long-term effects of microwave radiation and radio impact. The existing studies have still defined that radiation therapy and natural resources of radiation have short-term effects on human health.
The hazards are confined to tissue heating, headaches, nausea, stresses, and sunburn. In order to remove the effects, specific products can be used. In particular, the devices introduced by EathCalm producer can be used to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields and reduce the influence of emitted radiation.
In addition, public awareness of the existing hazards should also be increased to introduce specific polices aimed at preventing radiation emission and introducing the corresponding measures. Personal awareness is also important and it will contribute to solving the problem.
Despite a great number of researchers dedicated to the study of electromagnetic fields, few ones are dedicated to the study of their harmful effects on human health. In particular, no evidence has been found concerning the relationship between EMFs emission and DNA damage. The point is that there is no a unanimous opinion on this issues, which does not provide sufficient grounds for further research. In this respect, further studies should continue to provide accuracy and reliability to the above-presented findings.
Center for the Future. 3-Hole Resonator- Wireless Appliances. n. d. Web.
Earthcalm. EarthCalm Scalar Home EMF Protection System: An EMF Protector for the Family. Earthcalm. 2010. Web.
Eurobarometer. Electromagnetic Fields. Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs. 2010. Web.
Krawczyk, Andrzej. Electromagnetic Field, Health and Environment: Proceedings of EHE’07. US: IOS Press, 2007. Print.
Lucking, Charles.H., et al. “Resting Blood Pressure Increase During Exposure To A Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field.” Lancet 351.9119 (1998): 1857. Print.
Office of Technology Assessment. Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace. US: DIANE Publishing, n. d. Print.
Ruiz-Gomez, Miguel J., and Manuel Martinez-Morillo. “Electromagnetic Fields And The Induction Of DNA Strand Breaks.” Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine 28.2 (2009): 201-214. Print.
Zamanian, Ali and Cy Hardiman. Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health: A Review of Sources and Effects. EMR & Human Health. (2005): 16-26. Print.