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Homeostasis: Human Structure and Composition Coursework

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Introduction

Loops of Negative feedback are utilized by the body to achieve homeostasis – a balance – in the body. The concept of negative feedback is experienced in the instance that feedback leads to a reversed direction in as far as change is concerned. The effect of a feedback of this nature is the stabilization of the affected system with the aim of the correction of the resultant deviations from the point that is naturally set. Homeostatic regulations are usually associated with some benefits to the organism in a sense of enhancing effective functioning in environmental conditions that are varied in a range that is broad(Marieb & Hoehn, 2007).

The principle behind the success of majority of the homeostatic regulations is the hormones that are released by the body into the bloodstream. The mechanisms of crucial application in these processes of negative feedback are composed of the reduction of the output and in some cases, the reduction of the activity of the concerned organ or the entire system to a position equivalent to the functioning range at ordinarily or normal circumstances (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007).

The best example of this situation can be demonstrated by the deprivation of food to the body by a person. The set-point of metabolic activities is strictly adjusted to a value that is far much lower in comparison to the normal. This special natural adjustment necessitates for the functioning of the body at a rate that is slower to compensate for the starvation that the body has been exposed to. It therefore implies that starvation through the deprivation of food is not an appropriate method of application for the purpose of loosing weight as is believed and applied by some people. This is based on the readjustments in the direction of lowering the metabolic rate of the body below the set-point for the purpose of the survival of the body though at a low energy supply. The metabolic demand can only be adjusted by exercise.

The role of the negative feedback is the resistance of the current course of things and events. Growth is usually pulled back by the negative feedback for the purpose of the achievement of an equilibrium position. “The more I eat, the more I weigh. The less I eat, the less I weigh. Negative feedback damps or reduces an activity” (Marieb & Hoehn, 2007, p. 29).

Thermoregulation

By knowing science, people can make informed choices. For example, many sport drinks companies claim that by drinking their products, the body can replenish the water and electrolytes that it lost. When the nutrients are replenished dehydration and regulation of the body temperature is achievable. Majority of the sports drinks are known to contain electrolytes and carbohydrates suspended in fluids and their application in most of the cases widely recommended to enhance that the athlete endures in times of training as well as the real event.

This belief is based on the assumption that the replacement of the fluid has got positive impact on the performance of the athlete through the process of the elimination of the disturbance created to the functioning of the cardiovascular tissues that is the root cause o dehydration. This situation is promoted by the elevation of the blood pressure as well as its distribution coupled by impairment in the process of thermoregulation. The ingested carbohydrates are believed to improve the performance through the attenuation of the liver together with the depleted glycogen in the skeletal muscles (Nina, 2006). However, scientific discovery has proved this to be out of order.

The existing systems of the body usually work in coordination with regard to the various activities for the purpose of allowing the body to perform properly during the various physical activities in the daily life. This is what is scientifically termed as synergy which is so similar to the adaptation assumed by the body in the instances of stress related to specific training. The balance between the heat that is gained and that one that is lost is automatically kept at a balance through this technique and in human the range is usually 37o C.

The amount of water lost in form of sweat in a hot environment activity is astronomically immense which in turn leads to the reduction of the volume of the blood. Blood is the most essential liquid in the human body for the purpose of the transport of oxygen and other body needs for the purpose of the functioning of the muscles. Heat build up that is responsible for the reduction of the potential for functioning is also controlled by the water in the body. This extent of dehydration may affect the sweating of the athlete and may lead to some illnesses that are heat related (Ann, 2007).

However the body has its own mechanism to cope with this situation in which case the posterior gland of the pituitary is stimulated towards the release of the ADH, a hormone that in tern is responsible for the stimulation of the re-absorption of water being lost as urine through the kidneys. Through this mechanism, the retention of the fluid is greatly enhanced in the body. This is a natural mechanism to cope with adverse weather conditions of heat stress where most of the water and minerals is lost in form of sweat. The sport drinks available in the market are barely tasty liquids with no extra quality from water which are a gimmick and unnecessary for exercise. They are non beneficial and water qualifies as the only fluid for hydration (Nina, 2006).

Genetics

The work of science and scientists are cumulative. For example, in the 1860’s Mendel did not know about the existence of genes, chromosomes, or DNA. As he worked on pea plants, he discovered how certain traits are inherited. Mendel thus concluded his work with these two laws: the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment. In his work, he described how inheritable factors were inherited.

Mendelian inheritance or the Mendelian genetics implies primary tenets that are related to transferring characteristics of hereditary nature from the parents to the young ones in all the living organisms. The initial stages of the establishment of the concepts were associated with conflicts and controversy. This situation was overcome through integration of the concept of Mendel with the theory of chromosome by Thomas Morgan, hence the acceptance of classical genetics (Peter, 2004).

The inheritance law by Mendel is the basis of the explanation of the influence of the phenotypes on factors and its transmission to subsequent generations. The separation that occurs during the process of meiosis further explains the equal segregation as well as independent assortment of the pairs of the chromosomes. The laws of heredity are closely parallel to the chromosomal basis in as far as inheritance is concerned.

References

Ann, J. (2007). First Human N.Y: Prentice Hall.

Marieb, E. & Hoehn, K. (2007). Human structure and composition. CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Nina, G. J. (2006). Natural History. U.S: Univ. of California Press.

Peter J.B. (2004). Mendelian Revolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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IvyPanda. 2022. "Homeostasis: Human Structure and Composition." June 12, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/homeostasis-human-structure-and-composition/.

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