The discovery of the ocean floor is performed through bathymetry (Garrison and Ellis 104). Mapping the ocean floor of the Hudson River would enable the analysis of sediments and the bottom surface hardness as well as would provide data on bottom features and the depth of the river. To perform the mapping, the following geophysics methods would be employed: the global positioning system (GPS), side-scan sonar, multi-beam swath mapping, and sub-bottom profiling using the ground-penetrating radar (“Hudson River Mapping”).
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Another useful device for the analysis would be a push core sampler. With its help, specimens would be collected for further investigation of habitat and other elements. Different areas of the Hudson River would be analyzed, and later, the comparison of gathered data would be performed. The investigation of the Hudson River’s ocean floor would bring significant outcomes that could make the analysis of various processes easier.
When considering the idea of mapping the area under the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, it would be necessary to bear in mind that the topography of deep-ocean basins is quite different from that of the sea basins (Garrison and Ellis 120). Also, the ocean floor structure is divergent from the continental margins. The seafloor of the ocean is a “blanket” of sediment overlying basaltic rocks that are nearly 5 kilometers thick (Garrison and Ellis 120). Over half of the planet’s surface is composed of deep-ocean basins.
Taking into consideration the depth of the ocean floor, the following methods might be suggested for its mapping: satellite altimetry and multi-beam sonar (“Mapping the Ocean Floor”). The approach using satellite altimetry would be useful due to the following opportunities:
- the method employs satellites to estimate subtle but lasting divergences in sea-surface height;
- the approach enables global coverage;
- the resolution is 2-5 kilometers;
- the vertical accuracy is 200-300 meters.
The multi-beam sonar method has the following advantages:
- it employs a variety of echo-soundings to map narrow segments of the ocean floor (2-10 kilometers);
- it has a good resolution (25-100 meters) (“Mapping the Ocean Floor”).
One of the most effective ways of mapping the seafloor is the side-scan sonar system (Rona). This method works by towing a sounding device behind the research vessel. The device then produces acoustic sounds that are reflected off boundaries of various mediums (Rona). The measurement of the sound’s intensity allows predicting the composition of the seafloor. Also, such an approach helps to establish the shape and size of any vertical components of the floor.
A side-scan sonar system helps to find out the characteristics and distribution of the surface sediments (Rona). The boundaries between various seafloor materials are demonstrated graphically in a seismic record. These measurements are based on the amount of time during which the acoustical sound source travels from the towed device to the material and back to the receiver (Rona).
Analyzing the ocean floor has a high significance because the sediments situated there to provide valuable data on the history of the continents surrounding the ocean, the basins’ edges, and the biological productivity of the overlying water (Garrison and Ellis 120). The investigation of rivers’ floor is also important since it results in the discovery of habitats and the possibility of analyzing the travel routes as well as potential dangers for people living next to the river.
Garrison, Tom, and Robert Ellis. Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science. 9th ed., CENGAGE Learning, 2016.
“Hudson River Mapping.” Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, n.d. Web.
“Mapping the Ocean Floor.” GNS Science, n.d. Web.
Rona, Peter. “Mapping the Unknown: Seafloor Mapping.” Ocean Explorer. 2010. Web.