In the late 19th and early 20th centuries some of the larger employers with a paternalist outlook began to appoint welfare officers to manage a series of new initiatives designed to make life less harsh for their employees. Prominent examples were the progressive schemes of unemployment benefit, sick pay and subsidized housing provided by the Quaker family firms of Cadbury and Rowntree.
We will write a custom Report on Human Resource Management Processes specifically for you
301 certified writers online
While the motives were ….charitable, there was and remains a business as well as an ethical case for paying ….attention to the welfare of employees.” According to Bratton and Gold (2001, p.7), some of the major shifts which were experienced in employment relate to increased concern to the welfare of the workers.
Traditional view of personnel management
First World War and the Second World War
By 1918, there was another shift with regard to regulation of working conditions. The resultant effect was establishment of a strong relationship between employee welfare and efficiency. During the 1900s, the labor market was very tight.
Therefore integration of employee welfare was aimed at retaining the employees. During the world war, employees used to perform more intensive work. However, the shift towards employee welfare resulted into better working environment, working equipments, workshop organization and effective management.
In addition, personnel management also focused on remuneration as one of the ways through which employees can be motivated. This is evident in the emergence of Premium Bonus Systems (PBS) which culminated into development of systematic management. Introduction of the PBS method of remuneration led to expansion of the personnel management role.
The events of the First World War resulted into incorporation of industrial relations within the organization. In the early 1920s and 1930s there was a significant change with regard to organization’s internal practices in addition to employer’s perception of their human resource. This is evident in integration of concepts such as rationalization, human relation movement and Taylorism (Armstrong 2003).
The core objective of rationalization of human resource processes was to minimize cost of operation and to improve efficiency and effectiveness. In addition, rationalization was aimed at ensuring that the firm emphasized on tasks with added value. Integration of rationalization in management practices led to emergence of scientific management.
The findings of the Hawthorne experiment were the driving force towards the need for improved human relations. With regard to Taylorism, firms were advised to incorporate employees in their various organizational processes (Cheminais, Waldt & Bayat 1998).
After the war, there was an increment in demand for labor and raw materials. In addition, organizations in various economic sectors appreciated the concept of human relations in an effort to maximize labor productivity.
During this period, there was an improvement in the role of personnel managers towards provision of training programmes. In addition, human relation was also aimed at ensuring industrial peace. This was attained through incorporation of conciliation, arbitration and mediation in the personnel manager’s role.
The need for increased productivity led into a shift of personnel management to human resource management. This was aimed at ensuring that the firm attains a competitive advantage.
Differences between personnel and human resource management
Most of the activities related to personnel management are aimed at caring for the employee. As a result, personnel management roles are regarded to be administrative in nature.
Some of the roles relate to recruitment, training and rewarding. In addition, personnel management is also aimed at dealing with work-related problems. Personnel management tends to be an informal individualistic orientation (Thachappilly 2009).
On the other hand, human resource management involves practices which are aimed at defining and regulating employment relationships (Buhler 2002).
Get your first paper with 15% OFF
The core objective of human resource management is to human capital as one of the most important organizational resources. In order to achieve this, a number of activities are involved. These include employee development, maintenance, staffing, and rewarding and employee relation. However, the roles of HR managers vary from one organization to another.
Generally, the role of HR manager is considered to be transformational in nature. As a result, human resource management is aimed at creating a vision amongst the employees. In addition, HRM also focuses at development of an effective working environment which is characterized by innovation and employee commitment.
Human resource management is also considered to be proactive in nature while traditional personnel management is passive. Due to its proactive nature, HRM is concerned with various issues such as increased competition and changes in technology.
Objective of human resource planning
The external environment presents a challenge to a firm’s process of operation (Bandit & Haines 2002). In order to succeed firm’s management team have to be concerned with human resource aspect. Some of the objectives considered include;
- To determine a firm’s recruitment needs. This aids in eliminating chances of a firm experiencing unexpected shortages and redundancies.
- To establish a firm’s training needs. Training programmes should be well planned so as to effectively improve the quality of firm’s skills and hence its performance.
- To develop a firm’s management team- This contributes towards ensuring that the firm undertakes effective succession of its managers. The effectiveness of succession of the firm’s management is directly related with the accuracy of information and future requirements of the firm (Rothwell& Kazanas 2003).
- Human resource planning is also aimed at establishing a balance in the cost of workforce and its utilization. Human resource planning plays a significant role in the process of undertaking project costing.
- Human resource planning also plays a vital role in ensuring effective industrial relations.
Human resource planning process for Abbey Hotel
In order for Abbey Hotel to achieve its goals, the new manager should undertake a comprehensive planning process. Some of the processes which the management should consider are outlined below.
Designing an effective management system
The firm’s management team should conduct a strategic analysis of the firm. This will aid in determining whether the firm has is inline with emerging HR trends (Dale 2003). For example, in effort to ensure that the firm is established as an effective 4 star hotel the management team should evaluate whether it has the required human resource.
This will contribute towards ensuring that its human capital has the necessary skills to offer services which culminate into maximum customer satisfaction. Abbey Hotel targets high level clientele such as government officials. Therefore a high level of service is required. Currently, the firm’s standards of food and accommodation are relatively lower compared to other firms in the industry.
Conducting an environmental analysis
The new owner should evaluate the firm’s internal and external environments (Roberts 1997). For example, the manager should determine the economic status of the consumers. This will aid in determining whether the firm will succeed upon being established.
From the case, the external environment presents a potential opportunity for Abbey Hotel to succeed. This arises from establishment of the new convention centre within the firm’s vicinity.
Forecasting the firm’s demand for human resource
This will ensure the firm to project the type and number of employees it will require in the future. In order to project the human resource, Abbey’s management team should evaluate the firm’s past performance, its current requirements and its future requirement.
The firm intends to be an established 4-star hotel. This will be achieved by expanding its staff. In order to achieve this, the firm will be required to increase the number of its employees.
Analyzing the supply
Upon determining its human resource requirement, the management team should conduct an analysis of the labor market. This will aid in identifying employees with the necessary skills. One of the ways through which the firm can achieve this is by outsourcing.
Reconciliation and planning
The firm’s management team should develop action plan on the basis of information obtained. In addition, it should also consider alternatives through which it can attain its goals. The firm should also identify barriers which can hinder it from attaining its objective. The developed plans should be implemented according to their priority. Some of these may relate to human resource plan and employee training.
Recruitment and selection methods and process for the firm
In an effort to improve its operation to a 4 star hotel, the new owner should undertake a comprehensive recruitment process. In order to achieve this, both internal and external recruitment methods should be considered. One of the recruitment methods which the firm should consider includes use of recruitment agencies.
The new manager should scan the environment to identify recruitment agencies which specialize within the hospitality industry. By using recruitment agencies, there is a high probability of Abbey Hotel recruiting qualified candidates. Despite the cost involved in hiring the agency, the recruitment process will be effective.
In order to attract a large number of applicants, Abbey Hotel should advertise the vacant positions through various mediums such as use of print media. Attracting a large number of applicants increases the probability of hiring qualified candidates (Saiyadain 2009).
Considering the fact that the firm has been in operation within the industry for a number of years, an internal recruitment is necessary. This can be undertaken by evaluating the firm’s employees to determine their level of qualification and work experience. As a result, it will be possible for the firm to determine the fit of the incumbent employees’ skills and its intended skills.
In the process of improving its human capital through recruitment, the firm’s management team should undertake a comprehensive recruitment and selection process. Some of the issues which should be undertaken are discussed below.
Job analysis- The new jobs being created in the refurbished Abbey Hotel should be analysed. This should be undertaken through conduction a clear analysis of the job to be performed through a job description.
Screening and selection
The suitable candidates should be screened and selected. This should be attained through consideration of their skills relevance. One of the ways through which Abbey Hotel should conduct the screening and selection process entails conducting an interview. The interview should be well designed so as to identify recruits who will contribute towards the firm attaining its goal.
Some of the issues which should be considered in the screening process entail inclusion of practical assessment relevant to particular positions applied. Through practical assessment, the firm will give the applicants an opportunity to demonstrate their skills, abilities and knowledge. As a result, there is high probability of the firm recruiting suitable candidates.
Ways through which the firm can determine the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process
Analyzing the number of applicants. A firm’s recruitment drive should attract a large number of recruits for it to be effective.
This will contribute towards the firm hiring qualified candidates. In addition, attracting a large number of applicants signifies that the firm has a high advantage with regard to human capital. As a result, the firm will implement strategies aimed at retaining the recruited candidates considering the competitive nature of the hospitality industry.
Analyzing the recruits’ skills relevance-in order to achieve this, the firm should evaluate new ideas amongst the recruits which are inline with the firm’s goals. In addition, the firm can determine the success of the process by determining the willingness of the selected candidates to learn.
This arises from the fact that the firm intends to improve the quality of its service. One of the ways through which the firm can attain this is through incorporation of employee training programme.
Armstrong, M., 2003. A handbook of human resource management practice. New York: Kogan Publishers.
Cheminais, J., Waldt, V. & Bayat, F., 1998. The fundamentals of public personnel management. Chicago: Juta and Company Ltd.
Bandit, A. & Haines, S., 2002. Successful strategic human resource planning. New York: System Thinking Pres.
Buhler, P., 2002. Human resources management. London: Adams Media.
Bratton, J. & Gold, J., 2001. Human resource management: theory and practice. New York: Routledge.
Dale, M., 2003. Managers guide to recruitment and selection. Washington: Kogan Page Publishers.
Roberts, G., 1997. Recruitment and selection: a competency approach. Wales: CIPD Publishing.
Rothwell, W. & Kazanas, H.C., 2003. Planning and managing human resources: strategic planning for human resource management. New Delhi: Human Resource Development.
Saiyadain, B., 2009. Human resource management. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Thachappilly, G., 2009. Personnel management expands into HR management. Web. Web.