Theory of Racial Identity Development
Racial identity development is a part of the overall growth of an individual. It plays an important role in the process of self-realization. The essay elaborates various theories and models of racial identity development. It explores the concepts of Nigrescence deemed to provide the re-socializing experience that the African Americans undergo as they transform their identities from non-Afrocentric to Afrocentric. Finally, they adopt multiculturalism.
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Cross’s Model of Nigrescence
The psychological model of Nigrescence elaborates the re-socialization experience whereby a healthy black person must progress from non-Afrocentric to an Afrocentric to a multicultural identity (Altbach, Arnold, & King, 2014). The model is based on the two components namely the personal identity and reference groups of orientation (Shin, 2015).
Helm’s White Identity Model
Helm gives a six-step model for the White superior identity that examines the individualism, culture, and racism based on particular institutions. The model focused on the status of the whites and their progress from the racist notion. The stages of the model provide an explicit interracial experience as a source of trigger that leads to the development of racial identity (Wihak, 2015).
Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity Development
The model elaborates ethnic identity process relevant to the different cultural groups. It holds that the individuals of different ethnic origins must resolve issues that emanate from the members of the non-dominant groups. The non-dominant groups must address stereotyping and prejudicial actions of the dominating groups (Gong, 2007).
Example of the Theories in Action in My Life
Being a Negro in the USA, I hate our African American values because owing to the feeling of having the same characteristics as the Whites. The awareness of racism has significantly influenced my conscience. At one time, I met a Korean who also felt oppressed owing to racism in the US. This situation led to the alleviation of such acts of racism by encouraging various individuals, groups, and organizations to understand their roles in the promotion of racism in the country.
Advantages and Limitations of the Theories
Understanding racial identity development has helped me in the identification, examination, and modification of multicultural practices including self-concepts and affiliations. There are limiting factors such as the resistance resulting from the minority groups to dominate particular fields such as the research on the problem of racial inequality in nursing practice.
Did you find that it was reflected in one of the theories? If so, state the theory by explaining how it fits in your life.
Yes. My personal development is clearly depicted in the Phinney’s ethnic identity development model. The understanding of the theory brings about the awareness of self-development and self-evaluation. This situation heightens an individual’s self-esteem. By living among friends and people of different ethnic backgrounds, I often experience discrimination; hence, the understanding of the Phinney’s model helps me overcome such depressions. Indeed, this inclination to the theory has improved my academic achievements. Through my commitment to the ethnic identity and development, I can learn by exploration owing to the access to social support that brings about self-realization and fulfillment. A feeling of connectedness to the family has also been influenced by the model due to the closeness that exists between different ethnic groups that further provides social support for family, ethnic, occupational status, religious, and friendly affiliations among others.
Do you feel you have other areas that you need further growth in terms of diversity issues?
I have other areas such as academics that I need further growth in terms of diversity issues. Learning through experience is an everyday concept that involves the use of skills to solve questions that are related to racial identity development; hence, it encourages individuals to be aware of their intellectual feelings towards worldly experiences.
How do you think you could achieve more growth in this area?
Personal growth can be achieved in academic activities that are interconnected with cultural diversity. For instance, the evaluation of the ethnic identity development models can help understand cross-cultural relationships. This situation can create more freedom of self-identification with particular ethnic groups during the surveys. Furthermore, an improvement in scholastic development is feasible due to the perceived productive identity formation. Education will be accomplished through various approaches during the process of ethnic and racial identification and development.
Do you feel learning about the theories in this unit will help you become a better practitioner? Explain.
Yes, this is because, understanding racial identity development and culture of educational in learning is important. Reflection on the identity development theories especially the ethnic model is important in the learning processes since it helps in identification, examination, and modification of multicultural practices in medical or nursing practices. Such fields ensure that the practitioners interact well with clients of different ethnic origins.
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My career development can also be enhanced through the environment where individuals of different ethnic backgrounds develop team members that are tied based on self-concept and affiliations. A mutual benefit is realized where individuals share different experiences, values, beliefs, and attitudes towards academic situations. This situation has helped me fit in different cultural contexts in the school. As the cultural interactions intensify, I have grasped various philosophies such as perseverance and commitment to obligations that are held by other societies. This situation has significantly improved my problem-solving skills as evidenced in the overall academic improvement.
Overview of the Harvard University
The Harvard University was established in 1636 as an institution that was meant for ensuring excellence in activities such as teaching, learning, research, and development of leaders globally among others. The institution engages in both teaching and research programs. Currently, it has 12 schools including the Radcliffe Institute that offer advanced studies. It is based in Cambridge and Boston, Massachusetts. The university has over 20,000 students who include undergraduates, graduates, and professionals. It has over 360,000 alumni students globally (Cohen & Raiford, 2015).
Evaluation of Inclusion Teaching Strategic Plans in Addressing Multiculturalism and Diversity by the Harvard University
The Havard University’s professional lecturers and teaching staff ensure that inclusive teaching strategic plans are implemented in the institution to address diversity and multiculturalism sufficiently. The issue of diversity is depicted in the institution’s mission and values that are integrated into the curriculum to promote the experiences of the students (Barnes, 2006). Diversity in the institution is observed in many aspects such as privileges, identity, and awareness creation. The process is accomplished in a way to ensure that all the aspects of diversity such as gender, sexual orientation, race, social class, and disability among others are addressed.
At the outset, there is an aspect of cultural inclusion in the learning processes. The institution introduced such strategic plans due to the traditional cultures that were not notices noticed due to the mismatch between different student cultures. This state of affairs leads to lack of consciousness in the identification of cultural concepts (Barnes, 2006). As a result, the institution calls for multiculturalism that is dependent on the acceptance of faculties. The teacher integrates flexibility into the teaching modes to ensure the proper engagement in broad and diverse cultural orientation to the learning activities (Barnes, 2006). The teaching approaches go together with the appreciation of diversity. The accomplishment of this objective requires the students, teachers, and subordinate staff to appreciate the presence of different cultures, values, beliefs, and attitudes in the school community. The integration of multiculturalism and diversity into the institution’s curriculum has brought about the promotion of the values, attitudes, and philosophies that bind the human society.
The provisions for a supportive atmosphere, respect for cultural identity, and vigilance against biases are also some aspects that are incorporated in teaching to address the issues that arise due to diversity and multiculturalism. Nonetheless, the institution of multiculturalism is perceived to fail due to the existence of the White faculties that fail to recognize and respect the models of cultural diversity. Proper understanding is seen as a way of students to ensure that the teachers use the excellent approaches to meet their needs (Barnes, 2006). Lastly, there is an aspect of creating multicultural classroom environments to solve challenges that arise from diversity. The multicultural classroom is seen as a way of ensuring effective learning conditions. This strategy is accomplished by evaluating the key components that include the proper assessment of the prevailing situations, effective resource development, and evaluation of faculties. There is a need to align these elements with the existing cultural landscape with a view of ensuring that the needs of the diverse students are addressed appropriately. In conclusion, the evaluation of inclusion teaching strategic plans in addressing multiculturalism and diversity by the Harvard University is paramount to the promotion of academic activities in the institution.
Altbach, P., Arnold, K., & King, I. (2014). College student development and academic life: Psychological, intellectual, social and moral issues. London: Routledge.
Barnes, C. (2006). Preparing preservice teachers to teach in a culturally responsive way. Negro educational review, 57(2), 85.
Cohen, M., & Raiford, L. (2015). Thanks to Berkeley: Managing Multiculturalism in an Age of Austerity. Qui Parle: Critical Humanities and Social Sciences, 23(2), 185-204.
Gong, L. (2007). Ethnic identity and identification with the majority group: Relations with national identity and self-esteem. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(4), 503-523.
Shin, R. (2015). The Application of Critical Consciousness and Intersectionality as Tools for Decolonizing Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Models in the Fields of Counseling and Psychology. New York, NY: Springer.
Wihak, C. (2015). Development of Anti-Racist White Identity in Canadian Educational Counsellors. Boston, MA: Sense Publishers.