Kinds of indigenous animals in the Gulf
The Gulf States have had very depressing consequences as far as the continued existence of the native species is concerned. For instance, in these states, the most common indigenous variety of animals in the gulf is the sea mammals.
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The most common indigenous marine mammal is the Dugongs that are always referred to as the sea cows due to their grazing abilities as well as their meek manner of similarities to the farm animals (Al-Maslamani, et al., 2007). Further, the animals share a number of similarities with humans ranging from life expectancy to the height of about 3 meter tall. In addition, there are very clearly comparable hereditary likeness betweens the sea cows and the land mammals.
The genetic resemblances in the dugongs to the land mammals are more seeable as compared to other marine mammals such as whales and dolphins. However, despite the easy diet on grass, the marine animals also depend on other food types found along the gulf shoreline.
The habitats of the indigenous marine animals have been adversely affected by the modern developments along the shoreline (Al-Aarajy, 2011). The Gulf States have continued with their urban expansions along the shoreline, which is the major habitat for the indigenous marine animals.
For instance, the continued artificial island developments taking place along the gulf coast. As a result, the existence of the indigenous animals has been adversely affected by pollution arising from the oil spillages as well as uncontrolled hunting of the Dugongs (Al-Aarajy, 2011). As such, the current numbers of these native animals continue to decline with no clear knowledge on the present number and the reproductive tendency.
Causes of the extinction of the indigenous animals
The development of gas and oil industries along the coastlines of the gulf countries has had major contribution on the extinction of the indigenous species. For instance, oil refinery as well as other effluents has heavy metals and drilling mud that pose very great threats to the marine creatures (Al-Aarajy, 2011).
In addition, these industries discharge very hot water into the sea thereby increasing the temperature of water and thus making life unbearable for the species in the sea. Further, the industries channel their effluent in the sea and this has a negative effect on the existence of the species. As a result, this leads to the destruction of coral reefs and hence making survival unbearable to the species (Al-Aarajy, 2011).
The development of agriculture has also caused immense threats to the extinction of the indigenous species. For example, using fertilizers local eutrophication is guaranteed. In addition, saline intrusion and use of insecticides such as DDT pose very great threats to the lives of the species (Dunford et al., 2008). In addition, there has been a great reduction in the number of indigenous species in the gulf countries because of fishing and hunting of these animals.
In other words, through fishing there is the decline of the species as well as the degradation of habitats. In addition, the desalination and seawater treatment plants carry with them heavy metals with high temperatures as well as other chemicals that offer very unbearable conditions for survival to the animals (Edwards & Richardson, 2004). As such, the numbers of the indigenous animals continue to die due to unfavorable conditions in their habitats.
Another cause of the extinction of the indigenous arises from oil pollution. Due to the numerous number of offshore oil together with gas platforms or terminals for large tankers and ships that transport this oil, a huge damage has been done to the marine habitat. A higher percentage of this oil is transported by ship.
As a result, numerous threats are posed to the animals in the sea ranging from the spillage through discharge of dirty ballast waters to tank washing. All these have negative effects on the existence of the organisms because they contain toxic chemicals that are dangerous to their survival. In addition, studies have shown that oil pollution relates to about 0.5-1.51%of total organic carbon and this result in alterations of the populations of the animals (Edwards & Richardson, 2004).
Further, the development of power generating plants also has adverse impacts on the survival of the animals. In other words, these power plants discharge harmful effluents in the sea and as a result, there is the deposition of acidic solutions to the sea. Consequently, there is the increase in the generation of greenhouse gases and global warming (Edwards & Richardson, 2004).
All these have adverse impacts on the survival of the sea cows. Moreover, the degradation of reefs because of anchor damages caused by recreation also has deplorable consequences on the existence of the indigenous species. The establishments of shipping ports contribute to land reclamation as well as sedimentation. As a result, there is habitat loss.
Actions that should be taken to prevent further loss and increase their numbers
To evade extra loss of the indigenous marine animals particularly the dugongs, improving the gulf set of connections of the protected areas along the coast is very significant.
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The development has the capability of re-instilling the functionality as well as healthy nature of the indigenous animals’ growth (Edwards & Richardson, 2004). On that hand, curbing of the risks that are likely to face the productive habitations is feasible. In addition, close monitoring of the protected areas along the coast is also an effective solution to counteract the current and the probable risks.
In other words, coming up with long term perspectives and accepted policy approaches by the Gulf States are key to guarantee economic maintenance as well as natural balance . The approaches can be achieved through coming up with stronger environmental deliberations as well as increasing sharing of data related to the indigenous animals within relative government branches to ensure massive network of diverse schemes.
Developing robust as well as resilience roadmap is fundamental in addressing the issues related to understanding the extra shocks and disturbances posed to the ecosystem (Dunford et al., 2008). As a result, there is a reduction of damages to the indigenous animals. In addition, synergistic researches have advocated to the integration of long term as well as the past information about the gulf. Moreover, the establishment of artificial seawaters in salt of low ecological importance is vital in balancing the degraded coastal systems.
To avoid the loss of the numbers, all the schemes should consider assessing the current, existing as well as potential ventures as a unit. Recent studies emphasize on the threat posed by the oil fields as well as gas reserves found in the coastlines on the Gulf States (Burt et al., 2009). In other words, the oil cause reserves lead to coast dredging, infilling as well as conversion of shallow waters into land. As a result, all these factors pose very great threats to lose of habitats as well as the animals as a whole.
Al-Aarajy, M. J. (2011). Some observations on accidental fish mortality in the northwest Arabian Gulf. Marine Mesopotania Special Issue, 16(4), 431–439.
Al-Maslamani, I., LeVay, L., Kennedy, H. & Jones, D. A. (2007). Feeding ecology of the grooved tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan Decapada: Penaeidae in inshore waters of Qatar, Arabian Gulf. Marine Biology, 150(16), 627–637.
Burt, J. A., Bartholomew, A., Bauman, A. & Sale, P. (2009). Coral recruitment and early benthic community development on common materials used in the construction of artificial reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 373(23), 72–78.
Dunford, R. W., Ginn, T. C. & Desvousges, W. H. (2008). The use of habitat equivalency analysis in natural resource damage assessments. Ecological Economics, 48(16), 49–70.
Edwards, M. & Richardson, A. J. (2004). Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch. Journal of Nature, 430(11), 881–884.