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There are several types of research stating the relation between language and cognitive development. These researches have discovered a few strong links between general measures of cognitive and linguistic developments but to prove these links practically is still hard. There are some past conclusions that offer specific links such as works by Gopnik which offer that people may enhance certain types of meanings at about the same time that they resolve specific linked matters and several other types of research which focus on proving the connection between the development of disappearance words and the solution to certain object-durability matters.
From previous studies, the “specificity hypothesis” comes out. This suggestion offers that there are highly specific links between cognitive enhancement and specific linguistic accomplishments during the 1-word period. It proposes that the attainment of words encoding evaporation is related to the development of the object perception, while the acquisition of words programming success and failure is linked to the enhancement of means-ends realization.
There is indeed a relation between people’s presentation on the object-concept errands and their use of vanishing words. The percent of people shown to have augmented use of disappearance words was an effect of those same people having clutched the notion of object-permanence; though, the outline of the use of success/failure words could not precisely be deduced. These results do not directly verify the hypothesis, however, provide support in favor.
People who used insight to solve difficult means-end tasks were more likely to use success/failure words than those who did not.
There were very few people who had mastered one cognitive skill or task and not the other. People seemed to learn both at the same time. The cross-sectional study can only give indirect evidence about the relationship of ordering between cognitive development and linguistic development.
People entered the study already with some realization of these words and notions. The two categories of words concentrated on can be learned in any order.
There is confirmation of sublevels within the object concept and means-ends abilities. People seem to attain the basic level of cognitive enhancement before they realize related words. Semantic and cognitive developments seem to occur at the same time. Additionally, at least some of these relationships involve concurrent cognitive and semantic development, rather than involving cognitive prerequisites for semantic developments.
Errors in communication, and how to reduce them
The variety of people and life make our dissimilarities unavoidable. Discernments are always unique. The universe and reality are only what people create within their own minds, their interpretation lives within them and no one else. Our worlds are truly isolated to the neural systems of our own minds. We all live in a state of ‘virtual reality, with varying perceptions and realizations of our own mental universe based on our single experiences and varied collections of truths, and experiences. The further two individuals are divided in language, culture, and religion; the more difficult it is to share knowledge and enlightenment.
But even when difficulties appear to be minimal, due to partial knowledge and errors within both you and me, the brain and spiritual picture you paint and the meaning you take from these words is assuredly not exactly what the author envisaged and future to convey. The whole communicational process is subject to this type of personality-dependent error. Hopefully, this effort invokes an understanding within your mind which is reasonably close to intent, but perhaps your experience and wisdom expand these words far beyond what I am capable of contemplating. Verbal communication is subject to even more interpretive error as it is typically less formatted and the listener usually has less time to ponder upon and fully digest the information.
One important theoretical reason why negligence (including negligent misstatement) claims might still operate only on humans (as opposed to the system) is that, where a healthcare professional owns and operates an expert system, he or she could be held partially liable for the misapplication or misinterpretation of the expert system’s advice. This is because the “possible existence of errors in communication may make it difficult to establish the product as the direct cause of the patient’s injury” (Miller 1989).
Errors in communication could stem from the user interpreting commands and prompts differently than that system (or, the system designer) intended. Unfortunately, the user would necessarily discover communication errors post facto, after acting upon the information provided by the MDSS, and then noticing harm or damage
Gopnik, A. and Meltzoff, A.N. (1986) Relations between semantic and cognitive development in the one word stage – the specificity hypothesis. Child Development, 57, 1040-1053.
Miller, R.A. and K.W. Goodman (1998). “Ethical Challenges in the Use of Decision- Support Software in Clinical Practice” in K.W. Goodman (ed.) Ethics, Computing, and Medicine. Cambridge: CUP. Pp. 102-114.