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Mental Psychology and Motivation Essay

The mental rotation is the ability to rotate the two-dimensional mental representations. The state of the mind rotation must be the same as the visual contact. In other words, one can have visual objects and quickly rotate them in the human mind to form a different pattern or image.

Mental Rotation

The experiment proved that mental images are like pictures. Pictures have the characteristics of three-dimensional objects. Images in the head have the same qualities, even when they are two-dimensional (Reisberg, 2013). Mental rotation is the art of the brain moving objects so that one can understand what they are and classify them according to their origin and location.

It is the way the mind recognizes objects in the environment. One has to make a mental image of an object in mind (Reisberg, 2013). The mind rotates that object mentally until one can reach a comparison for the object. Once the comparison is complete, one has to decide if the objects are alike or if they differ. It is then time to report the decision (Reisberg, 2013). Other experiments include the work of Shepard, Chipman, Finke, and Pinker. Smith and Schwartz also concluded their findings.

Mental Scanning

Mental scanning supports the depictive theory of imagery (Reisberg, 2013. Stephen Kosslyn and others developed the idea of the mind images about the fictional pictures (Reisberg, 2013). People would mentally draw a fictional map, including all the landmarks (Beauvais, 2013). Therefore, it proved that the typical results of the mental scanning experiment supported the idea that mental images are like pictures.

Other researchers and analysts got interested in the findings and continued with the experiments. Most of the results proved that the initial findings were correct (Capriotti, 2013). Martha Farah did another research with the agnosia visual patients. Due to their brain damage, they could not answer some questions on image generation. The results illustrated that the patients were good at image rotation and scanning. They supported the same idea. Shepard and Chipman also found out that one could draw a picture from memory (Capriotti, 2013).

Findings on Genie

Genie’s story is one that gives the best example of learning a language. She heard a few words from her father (Abello-Contesse, 2008). She also could recognize the sound of music from a piano and an airplane’s sound. It shows that experience and environment are critical to a learner’s ability to grasp speech at a young age. Nurture is more important for language acquisition than nature. The fact that she had a family did not make her a good speaker (Du, 2010). Adoption cases prove that children can quickly adapt to the accent of their foster parents because it is the environment they relate to at that time (Du, 2010).

Goals and Motivation

Goals put realistic expectations on the behavior of individuals because of understanding what one needs to do to achieve them. They improve motivation and morale (Deckers, 2014). Goals also assure a measure of success because of their design. They motivate individuals to work hard towards that success (Deckers, 2014).

One can achieve the goals if he or she works on them systematically by simplifying them. If there is no achievement, individuals and groups develop low self-esteem (Deckers, 2014).

It is advisable that the costs should produce considerable benefits to organizations and individuals. It encourages people to keep supporting the goal by incurring the cost that leads to the achievement of the goal.


Abello-Contesse, C. (2008). Age and the critical period hypothesis. English Language Teaching Journal, 63(2), 170-172. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn072.

Beauvais, F. (2013). Quantum-like interferences of experimenter’s mental states: Application to “Paradoxical” results in physiology. Neuroquantology, 11(2), 100-120. doi:10.14704/nq.2013.11.2.656.

Capriotti, G. (2013). Visions, mental images, real pictures. The mystical experience and the artistic patronage of sister battista da varano. Interkerkelijke Omroep Nederland, 6, 213-224. doi:10.1484/j.ikon.5.102950

Deckers, L. (2014). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-61081-5.

Du, L. (2010). Assess the critical period hypothesis in second language acquisition. English Language Teaching, 3(2). doi:10.5539/elt.v3n2p219

Reisberg, D. (2013). Cognition: Exploring the science of the mind (5th ed.). New York, NY: Norton and Company.

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IvyPanda. (2020) 'Mental Psychology and Motivation'. 7 April.

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