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Microbial Interactions in the Gut of Canadian Geese Research Paper

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Updated: Feb 15th, 2022

Introduction

The gastrointestinal tracts of different birds host a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotic. Scientists and researchers refer to these species as microbiota. Such microorganisms are essential since they impact the physiology, immunity, development, reproductive abilities, and behavior of these vertebrates and their evolutionary processes. The paper below presents my personal views of host-microbial interactions in the gut of Canadian geese and the issues associated with such processes.

Personal Views

The studied class materials have identified gut microbiota as essential since it plays a crucial role in the health and development of birds, including Canadian geese. The nature of microbiota tends to affect the fitness and survival of the host in a number of ways. These microorganisms co-evolve with the birds, thereby increasing or weakening the fitness of the host. These developments might have significant implications on the birds’ growth rates, chances of survival, and reproductive abilities. The environment is also a key determinant of this symbiotic relationship since it dictates the optimum functions of the microbes, thereby determining the success rate of a goose (Grond et al. 4). Breeders and farmers can consider this information to manage the microbiota balance and eventually maximize the performance of such birds.

Application for Bio-conservation and Agricultural Implications

The knowledge of host-microbial interactions in the gut of Canadian geese becomes an opportunity to take the idea of bio conservation to the next level. Risely et al. observed that the natural environment dictated the survival and success of various microbial organisms in the gut of birds and other vertebrates (433). Any variation or destruction of the natural environment stressed the coexistence index, thereby affecting the performance of the host and the microorganisms. Scientists can utilize this information to conserve the environment depending on the needs of different species (Javůrková et al. 2371). They may go further to minimize the use of chemicals that might pollute the natural environment. Human beings can also reconsider the issue of deforestation by monitoring these microbial interactions.

Similarly, farmers can use this information to achieve better yields or production by maintaining microbial interactions in the gut at optimum levels. For instance, the recorded differences in the gut microbiota of domesticated birds during early development determined their health outcomes. Breeders can use galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) since they trigger beneficial autochthonous bacteria in the gut (Wu et al. 122214). This achievement eventually improves the overall performance of the birds, thereby maximizing productivity. Additionally, new chicks are usually at risk of developing gut infections due to poor or weak immunity (Braga et al. 89). This knowledge can encourage agriculturalists to consider new ways of boosting immunity and improving gut microbiota.

Biologists can use probiotics in birds to improve production and optimize gut microbiota. The use of non-pellet feeding is an evidence-based process for lowering gut acidity. This practice can also result in the death of microbes that might be dangerous to the bird. Scientists in this field can also consider the concept of quantification of Lactobacillus spp to maximize or improve performance (Maraci et al. 398). The provision of GOS can result in an improved growth rate for broilers. These attributes can make it easier for those involved in bird farming to achieve their goals much faster.

Physical, Chemical, and Biological Factors

The chemical, biological, and physical factors tend to impact host-microbial interactions and their relationships to animal biology. First, the presence of chemicals in the environment or food will influence the development of microorganisms in the animal system. Birds can also be poisoned by such compounds and fail to grow optimally (Kleyheeg et al. 1831). Disturbed microbiota systems will affect the immunity and survival rates of the affected birds. Similarly, biological factors such as the bird’s genetic makeup, presence of existing conditions, and eating habits will impact host-microbial interactions (Martin et al. 139). These issues will eventually dictate a number of attributes in the animal system. Physical aspects such as the bird’s age and size, pH of the gut, and nature of available food materials will influence such interactions.

Relation to Animal Biology

With the presence of such microbial-host responses, animal biology will be influenced significantly. For instance, the presence of optimal interactions means that the bird will record a positive growth rate (Cleary et al. 351). It will also remain healthy and be able to add weight within a short time. Its behavioral responses will remain optimal and reproduce effectively. However, the presence of chemical, biological, and physical inhibitors or stressors in the surrounding environment will result in stunted growth (Thursby and Juge 1829). The bird may become inactive and fail to feed effectively. Its health will eventually worsen and affect the level of production. Experts in the field of animal breeding should consider the nature of such interactions in an attempt to minimize causal factors. They will go further to design evidence-based strategies to support such birds to grow optimally.

Conclusion

The above discussion has identified gut microbioata in Canadian geese as essential since it triggers positive dietary and health responses. Scientists and farmers need to consider this information to engage in evidence-based feeding processes and improve growth and overall performance. A detailed analysis of these host-microbial interactions can result in the provision of appropriate adequate chemical, physical, and biological factors that have the potential to maximize the effectiveness of the bird’s system.

References

Braga, Raíssa M., et al. “Microbial Interactions: Ecology in a Molecular Perspective.” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 47S, no. 1, 2016, pp. 86-96.

Cleary, Jessica L., et al. “Calling All Hosts: Bacterial Communication in Situ.” Chem, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017, pp. 334-358.

Grond, Kirsten, et al. “The Avian Gut Microbiota: Community, Physiology and Function in Wild Birds.” Journal of Avian Biology, vol. 49, no. 11, 2018, pp. 1-19.

Javůrková, Veronika G., et al. “Unveiled Feather Microcosm: Feather Microbiota of Passerine Birds is Closely Associated with Host Species Identity and Bacteriocin-Producing Bacteria.” Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology, vol. 13, no. 1, 2019, pp. 2363-2376.

Kleyheeg, Erik., et al. “Interactions Between Seed Traits and Digestive Processes Determine the Germinability of Bird-Dispersed Seeds.” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 4, p. e0195026.

Maraci, Öncü, et al. “Olfactory Communication via Microbiota: What Is Known in Birds?” Genes, vol. 9, no. 8, 2018, pp. 387-403.

Martin, Clair R., et al. “The Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis.” Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 2, 2018, pp. 133-148.

Risely, Alice, et al. “Active Migration is Associated with Specific and Consistent Changes to Gut Microbiota in Calidris Shorebirds.” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 87, no. 1, 2018, pp. 428-437.

Thursby, Elizabeth, and Nathalie Juge. “Introduction to the Human Gut Microbiota.” Biochemical Journal, vol. 474, no. 11, 2017, pp. 1823-1836.

Wu, Yueni, et al. “Habitat Environments Impacted the Gut Microbiome of Long-Distance Migratory Swan Geese but Central Species Conserved.” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, 2018, p. 122214.

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