The structure and functions of genes is studied in biology under genetics and it is done at a molecular level. Nicholas Wade capture this in his article,’ from one Genome, many types of cells. But How?’ Wade attempts to explore the idea that several specialized cells have an identical genome yet on the other hand, they collaborate in the process of bodybuilding (Wade 12). The cells found in the different body organs get different hereditary instructions from the DNA. These instructions are implemented without the cells interfering with each other. The instructions originate from the fertilized egg before being transmitted during cell division.
We will write a custom Essay on Molecular Genetics and Biological Inheritance specifically for you
301 certified writers online
The epigenome that is embedded in the DNA controls the access processes to the genes, and as such determines the type of cell to be accessed and the time. The components of epigenome are complex both in their form and in structure. Wade also discusses the DNA packaging system. This has histones that form the core around then nucleus. The histones provide a way of marking up the genetic script along with playing a role during cell division. The chromatin regulators are also involved in shaping the epigenome.
In Benedict Carey’s article titled, Genes as Mirrors of Life Experiences, a number of ideas have been explored. The article analyses epigenetics. A study evaluating how experiences that people go through and their environment affect the functioning of the genes. The environment that subsequently affects the behavior of people is affected by the development in epigenetics (Carey 09). The type of nurturing given by parents to their children affects behavior that can be passed over genetically to the offsprings. The negative effects on the epigenetics are linked to the conditions that include autism and schizophrenia.
Sandra Blakeslee analyses how a mother’s diet can permanently alter the functioning of genes in the offspring while leaving the genes intact. If markers close to the genes are affected then they can cause diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This means that what pregnant mothers eat may lead to the children developing diseases. The sequence of the genes in relation to the specific illness that are caused by their defects is currently the focus of scientists (Blakeslee 07). Attention in this study has shifted from mutation to the biological mechanisms. Carl Zimmer in his article,’ The rest of the Genome,’ presents the gene as an identity crisis. The fundamental definitions of the gene including their forms and structure are widely discussed. The details include protein components of DNA and the relations with RNA (Zimmer 05). The location and constituents of the genome was discussed and first drafted at the turn of the 21st Century. Further research revealed the presence of epigenome.
Several important observations can be made from the four articles. It is worth noting that the idea behind the working of the body organ cells is important. This is in the article by Nicholas Wade. The explanation surrounding the second layer of information plays a great role in understanding the transfer of information from the fertilized egg during cell division. In the genes as mirrors, the discovery that the cause of certain conditions was beyond the study of genes played a role in the study of epigenetics to unravel the link between the gene defects and the exact conditions they cause. The fact that environmental factors within which a pregnant mother is in can directly be inherited by an offspring inform of illness was a great step towards addressing some of the conditions.
Blakeslee, Sandra. A pregnant Mother’s Diet may turn the Genes around. New York: New York Times, 2003. Print.
Carey, Benedict. Genes as Mirrors of Life Experiences. New York: New York Times, 2010. Print.
Wade, Nicholas (2009). From one Genome, Many types of cells. But how? New York Times, 2009. Print.
Zimmer, Carl. The Rest of the Genome. New York: New York Times, 2008. Print.