Summary of Plant Cell Physiology
Cell physiology is the study of the functions of the cell structures. Carbohydrates production, protein and energy are some of the functions that a cell carries out. Through photosynthesis, production of Carbohydrates takes place, while production of energy is done through the synthesis process. Chloroplasts produce Carbohydrates and mitochondria produces energy while ribosome synthesizes proteins. These are the physiological process. They help the plant cell produce the raw materials that assist the cell to remain alive. The materials needed are oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose and mineral salts. During these processes, the production of waste products takes place through the cell membrane (Goss 32).
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The surface structure of a cell is what is known as the membrane. The cell membrane has three layers perforated by pores that let in and out the waste products and raw material to maintain the life of the cell in the plant. The properties of a cell membrane are semi-permeability, which means that only tiny molecules enter into the cell membrane. Sensitivity to temperature is explained due to the fact that the membrane of a cell has a layer of protein that is highly sensitive to temperature. The cell has a positive and negative electric charge that helps the cell detect changes in the environment (Goss 33).
The function of controlling movement of substances in and out of the cell is known as the physiological process. This physiological process involves such mechanisms as active transportation of the raw materials, osmosis and diffusion. The role of diffusion is to absorb the raw material. Many mineral salts dissolve in the soil water and form ions that are small enough to pass through the pores of the membrane in the plant roots.
The ion molecules enter the membrane of the cell when the solution concentration of ion molecules in the soil water is higher than the same in the root hair. Some of the factors that may affect diffusion are diffusion gradient, the safe area to volume ratio, thickness of the membranes and tissues, the size of molecules and the temperature. Osmosis is a type of diffusion which involves the semi permeable membrane (Goss 36).
Glossary of vocabularies
- Function is the physiological activity of an organ or body part.
- Structure is the body tissues, organs, or other parts of the body formation of an organism.
- Synthesis is a process of combining different elements to form a coherent whole.
- Physiological refers to normal functioning characteristic of a living organism.
- “Mineral” means to be of inorganic matter.
- Waste is the product which is of no use.
- To maintain means to keep up good relations
- Membrane is a thin layer of tissue or cell.
- Permeability is the rate of flow of gas or liquid through materials.
- Sensitivity is the organism capacity to respond to stimulation.
- Negative response means moving away from a stimulus.
- Positive refers to moving toward the source of a stimulus.
- Substance is something that occupies space and has mass.
- Absorption is a process of substance movement.
- Concentration denotes the levels of specified substance in a single unit of another substance.
- Osmosis is diffusion of liquids through a membrane. This takes place when the solution on one side has a low concentration while another one has a higher concentration. The process takes place and ensures that solution balances or concentration on both sides is equal.
- Molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that has physical and chemical properties of the substance. Through a chemical force, atoms are held together.
- Permeable means that something can penetrate into the cell, especially liquids or gases.
- Perforated refers to something that has holes that are tiny or small.
Goss, James A. Physiology of Plants and Their Cells. Michigan, Pergamon Press. 1973. Print.