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Penetration of pathogens of pneumonia in the respiratory parts of the lungs through the bronchogenic, hematogenic, per continuinatem, or lymphogenous pathways followed by their adhesion to the epithelial cells of the bronchopulmonary system and a consequent development of the local inflammatory process under the influence of infection and its spread through the lung tissue, sensitization to infectious agents and immuno-inflammatory reactions, and activation of lipid peroxidation and proteolysis in the lung tissue (Ramirez, n.d.; Muravlyova et al., 2016).
Signs and Symptoms
The common symptoms are the couch, dyspnea, and pain in the chest; fever, intoxication syndrome (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2015). Physiological signs are the shortening of percussion sound, respectively to the localization of the inflammatory focus; increased vocal tremor, bubbling rales in the projection of the focus of inflammation, changes in vesicular breathing, and so on. The diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms shown by the patient.
Lab and Diagnostic Tests
Chest X-ray is the main diagnostic test. General blood analysis allows finding leukocytosis, toxic granulocyte neutrophil, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, and so on. Urinary antigen testing is recommended as well (Dunphy et al., 2015).
Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Mycoplasma pneumonaia, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila.
Dunphy, L. M., Winland-Brown, J. E., Porter, B. O., & Thomas, D. J. (2015). Primary care: The art and science of advanced practice nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Muravlyova, L., Molotov–Luchankiy, V., Bakirova, R., Klyuyev, D., Demidchik, L., & Lee, V. (2016). Characteristic of the oxidative stress in blood of patients in dependence of community-acquired pneumonia severity. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 4(1), 122–127. Web.
Murtaza, M, Patawari, P., Iftikhar, H. M., Shimmi, S. C., Hussain, S. S., & Sien, M.M. (2015). Acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, pathophysiology and treatment. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, 4(2), 30-36.
Ramirez, J. (n.d.). Community acquired pneumonia. Web.