Pneumonia is a major healthcare problem that causes a high level of mortality and morbidity in both children and adults (Shan, Tunik, & Tsung, 2013). Therefore, it is necessary to understand epidemiological, diagnostic, and treatment implications of the disease in order to inform clinical decisions of healthcare practitioners. The paper will discuss pediatric pneumonia and an educational program on respiratory viral infections.
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Children and Adults
It is much harder to diagnose pneumonia in children when compared to adults because the presenting symptoms of pediatric pneumonia overlap with other respiratory conditions (Nelson, 2015). The following signs are suggestive of the disease in children: increased respiratory rate, grunting, audible wheeze, and indrawing of the lower chest wall (Nelson, 2015). It is also necessary to conduct bacterial studies and run the complete blood count (CBC) test. The diagnostic process for pediatric pneumonia is complicated by the fact that respiratory rates of children differ with age. Furthermore, even though ultrasonography allows to accurately identify the condition in both children and adults, it is more effective for diagnosing adult patients (Shan et al., 2013). When it comes to differences in the treatment of the disease, children require hospitalization more often. Also, young children more commonly have viral pneumonia, which does not require antibiotic therapy (Nelson, 2015). Adults, on the other hand, are more vulnerable to bacterial pneumonia; therefore, their treatment revolves around the antibiotic administration.
Epidemiology and Etiology
The key etiological agents that cause the disease are Streptococcus pneumonia, haemophilus influenza type b, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (Rudan et al., 2013). It is worth mentioning that RSV is the agent which is associated with the majority of pneumonia episodes—29 percent (Rudan et al., 2013). The findings of a study on community-acquired childhood pneumonia point to the improvement of the epidemiological burden of the disease over the last decade. Specifically, whereas in 2000, the estimated global incidence of pneumonia fell in the range between 0.21 to 0.71 per child, the range of the average incidence has substantially narrowed in 2010—from 0.11 to 0.51 (Rudan et al., 2013). A reduction of the median incidence of the disease constitutes almost 25 percent, which is evidence of the substantial progress achieved by the global healthcare community (Rudan et al., 2013).
A ‘play-station’ should emphasize the importance of regular and frequent hand washing as a means of reducing the risk of contracting the disease. Therefore, the use of bath-inspired visual themes, as well as toy basins and soaps, can reinforce the health message. A program has to ensure that children’s education is tailored to their cognitive needs and age. Parents should also be provided with basic pneumonia information (Abolwafa & Mohamed, 2017). To this end, the program has to address the signs and symptoms of the disease specific to children, temperature-taking, fever management, and prevention by using bullet points and visual aids. It is of utter importance to inform families that newborns do not necessarily exhibit signs of infection such as cough and vomiting (Nelson, 2015). The program should also remind parents of the need to regularly vaccinate their children. To reinforce the information at home, parents can be provided with printed booklets and web-based resources on the prevention and management of pneumonia.
The paper has discussed the specifics of pediatric pneumonia. It has been argued that the condition is associated with the substantial healthcare burden; therefore, it necessitates efficient health promotion and disease prevention activities. The paper has also outlined the educational program that can be used to reduce the incidence of pneumonia among children.
Abolwafa, N. F., & Mohamed, A. H. (2017). Effect of educational program on mothers knowledge about prevention of pneumonia for their children under five years. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 6(5), 5-12.
Nelson, B. D. (2015). Essential clinical global health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Rudan, I., O’Brien, K. L., Nair, H., Liu, L., Theodoratou, E., Qazi, S.,… Campbell, H. (2013). Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia in 2010: Estimates of incidence, severe morbidity, mortality, underlying risk factors and causative pathogens for 192 countries. Journal of Global Health, 3(1), 1-19.
Shan, V. P., Tunik, M. G., & Tsung, J. W. (2013). Prospective evaluation of point-of-care ultrasonography for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children and young adults. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(2), 119-125.