Home > Free Essays > Health & Medicine > Pulmonology > Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children

Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children Research Paper

Exclusively available on IvyPanda Available only on IvyPanda
Updated: Apr 12th, 2022

Introduction

Background

The infection with pneumonia has been a leading cause of death among children aged below five. However, with the increasing rate of HIV-infection in children, the morbidity and mortality rates in children infected with pneumonia are increasing.

Purpose of the paper

The purpose of this paper is to analyze a recent study conducted to examine this phenomenon. HIV and pneumonia are some of the leading causes of infant mortality. The topic is quite interesting because only a few studies have attempted to focus on the role of HIV infection on the rates of mortality and morbidity rates in pneumonia infections.

Microorganisms of interest

A number of microorganisms, especially bacteria and viruses, are the chief causes of pneumonia infection. The bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia accounts for about 50% of the cases, but other bacteria species such as Haemophilus influenza, Mycoplasma pneumonia and Chlamydophila pneumoniae also contribute to pneumonia. Similarly, a number of viruses such as rhinoviruses, influenza virus, adenovirus, coronaviruses and others cause pneumonia (Madhi, Klugman & Group, 2004).

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a single stranded RNA virus of the family retroviridae. It is primarily a sexually transmitted virus responsible for the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in humans, but can also be passed through a number of other body fluids. It is a leading cause of death in the developing world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, it causes child mortality because the virus penetrates the placenta and is abundant in almost all human fluids, including vaginal fluids and human milk (Rudan, O’brien, Nair, Liu, Theodoratou, Qazi & Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group, 2013).

Article analysis

Title of the article

Theodoratou, E., McAllister, D. A., Reed, C., Adeloye, D. O., Rudan, I., Muhe, L. M., Madhi, S. A., Campbell, H., & Nair, H. (2014). Global, regional, and national estimates of pneumonia burden in HIV-infected children in 2010: A meta-analysis and modelling study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1250-1258.

Article Summary

The above article provides a report of one of the recent studies conducted to examine whether pneumonia is a risk to children infected with HIV, especially in the developing world. It is the first global study to examine the role of HIV infection on the incidence and mortality of pneumonia. The researchers focused on children aged 5 years and below, primary in sub-Saharan Africa. The study was conducted at the University of Edinburg under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization.

Research question

The researchers wanted to address the question on whether pneumonia is a risk to children infected with HIV.

Methods

The researchers used a quantitative design, focusing on the rates and risks of hospitalization and case fatalities caused by pneumonia infection in HIV-positive children and HIV-negative children. A systematic review of studies published between 1980 and 2013 was conducted to estimate a national wide incidence and mortality due to pneumonia and mortality.

Results

The study indicates that the global rate of infection with pneumonia in children is more than 1.4 million, causing the death of about 88,000 per annum. In the developing world, especially in Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland, the death rates due to pneumonia was very high among the HIV-positive children and low among the HIV-negative children. It was found that about 20% of all the cases and 60% of all the deaths due to pneumonia infection occurred in the HIV-positive children (Theodoratou, McAllister, Reed, Adeloye, Rudan, Muhe, Madhi, Campbell, & Nair, 2014).

Conclusion and implications

In this report, the researchers suggest that most appropriate method of reducing child deaths can be achieved through improvements in HIV management. For instance, clinicians should use early testing for children as well as recommending early antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive mothers.

Summary

The findings of the research should be used to improve handling of HIV-infected mothers and children in the developing world as well as the management of pneumonia. In addition, it shows the need for more studies to examine how the problem could be solved.

References

Madhi, S. A., Klugman, K. P., & Group, T. V. T. (2004). A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia. Nature medicine, 10(8), 811-813.

Rudan, I., O’brien, K. L., Nair, H., Liu, L., Theodoratou, E., Qazi, S., & Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. (2013). Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia in 2010: estimates of incidence, severe morbidity, mortality, underlying risk factors and causative pathogens for 192 countries. Journal of global health, 3(1).

Theodoratou, E., McAllister, D. A., Reed, C., Adeloye, D. O., Rudan, I., Muhe, L. M., Madhi, S. A., Campbell, H., & Nair, H. (2014). Global, regional, and national estimates of pneumonia burden in HIV-infected children in 2010: A meta-analysis and modelling study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(12), 1250-1258.

This research paper on Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Removal Request
If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda.
Request the removal

Need a custom Research Paper sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

801 certified writers online

Cite This paper
Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, April 12). Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children. https://ivypanda.com/essays/pneumonia-infection-amp-risk-of-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children/

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, April 12). Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/pneumonia-infection-amp-risk-of-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children/

Work Cited

"Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children." IvyPanda, 12 Apr. 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/pneumonia-infection-amp-risk-of-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children/.

1. IvyPanda. "Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children." April 12, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/pneumonia-infection-amp-risk-of-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children." April 12, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/pneumonia-infection-amp-risk-of-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children/.

References

IvyPanda. 2022. "Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children." April 12, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/pneumonia-infection-amp-risk-of-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children/.

References

IvyPanda. (2022) 'Pneumonia Infection & Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Children'. 12 April.

Powered by CiteTotal, citation machine
More related papers