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Prevention of Nosocomial Infections in Patients Annotated Bibliography

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Updated: Apr 29th, 2022

A reasonable problem

The occurrence of nosocomial infections transmitted by all staff within a Skilled Nursing Facility is the issue, which makes many people bothered. To make sure that it can be prevented by the implementation of preventative alert and pause systems, the literature review in the sphere should be conducted to understand what is known about the issue, which the rate of the infection occurrence is and what the level of the danger is in case the patients are infected.

3 or more appropriate symptoms or pieces of evidence of the problem identified

The nosocomial infections are believed to be important in the modern society as according to the research conducted by Šuljagić et al. (2011) the problem effects people with chronic diseases that makes the issue worse. Yen, Lu, Huang, Chen, Chen, & Lin (2010) are also sure that the delivery of the infection from the patients to the staff in clinics may cause the epidemics. The chances for such development of the affairs should be reduced to minimum. Navarro-Zarza, Álvarez-Hernández, Casasola-Vargas, Estrada-Castro, & Burgos-Vargas (2010) conducted a research on the basis of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who were infected with nosocomial infections in hospitals and dwelt upon the complications while treatment. Therefore, the problem is urgent and the ways of the infection elimination should be searched for.

7 keywords to use to punch into the computer and a precise description of the modification of keyword searches

Nosocomial, infections, hospital, staff, microorganisms, prevention, and epidemics are the main keywords which have been used for searching for the appropriate information. When the keywords did not work effectively, the combination of the words was applied to, for example nosocomial infections, hospital infections, infections prevention, epidemics prevention, etc. The more complicated keyword phrases such as nosocomial infection prevention gave the best results as the relevant sources were listed for consideration.

2 or more appropriate resources for references

EBSCO and PubMed databeases were used for searching for the appropriate information as these resoueces are reliable and contain only credible sources.

CARS checklist

Title Credibility Accuracy Reasonableness Support
Epidemiology of nosocomial colonization/infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. in patients of six surgical clinics in war and peacetime Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Quantitative evaluation of infection control models in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of SARS virus to healthcare workers: Implication to nosocomial viral infection control for healthcare workers Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Prevalence of community-acquired and nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections of patients with acute central nervous system infections treated in ICU Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients with nosocomial infections Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Control and prophylaxis of gram negative nosocomial infections in the intensive care units Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care patients Trustworthy as located in the reliable source and offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Handwashing and Infection Control Offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Nosocomial malaria and saline flush Offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data
Estimating Health Care-Associated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals Offers accurate and persuasive arguments Up-to-date and detailed Balanced, objective, and reasoned The source is provided with all the supportive data

The sources under consideration are scholarly articles, therefore, they do not have limitations as being reviewed by the professional PhD editors, the sources were gathered from reputable databases and can be trusted. Professional nurses or scientists who have a great experience in the sphere are the authors of the research. The information is considered to be useful as the practical implementation of the research results may reduce the cases of the nosocomial infection in clinics.

A complete annotated bibliography for 10 sources

Šuljagić, V., Jevtić, M., Djordjević, B., Romić, P., Ilić, R., Stanković, N., &… Jovelić, A. (2011). Epidemiology of nosocomial colonization/infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. in patients of six surgical clinics in war and peacetime. Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia & Montenegro, 68(8), 661-668.

The research is based on the comparative analysis of the spread of the nosocomial infection in clinics during the war and in peacetime period. The research has shown that at the wartime men were more infected with the bacteria, while at the peacetime more people with chronic diseases were subjected to the disaster. The usefulness of the research is explained by the reference to the people with chronic diseases. The timeline is considered as the limitation as the wartime was reviewed when other principles of medication were used. The audience of the research is the medical staff. I suppose the information from the source may be applied in practice and more attention should be paid to people with chronic diseases.

Yen, M., Lu, Y., Huang, P., Chen, C., Chen, Y., & Lin, Y. E. (2010). Quantitative evaluation of infection control models in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of SARS virus to healthcare workers: Implication to nosocomial viral infection control for healthcare workers. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 42(6-7), 510-515.

The research is subjected to the impact of the nosocomial infection on the patients with the infection of the nervous system and the outcome of such infection. The study is devoted to “clinical and epidemiological characteristics of nosocomial infections in ICU treated patients with ACNS infections” (p. 277). At the same time, the restriction of the research material is the limitation in this case as only some particular aspects and diseases are covered. Still, the awareness that the problem affects people with nerves diseases. The author concludes that people with nerves diseases should be paid more attention in the relation to nosocomial infections to avoid being infected.

Navarro-Zarza, J. E., Álvarez-Hernández, E. E., Casasola-Vargas, J. C., Estrada-Castro, E. E., & Burgos-Vargas, R. R. (2010). Prevalence of community-acquired and nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus, 19(1), 43-48.

Being the most spread causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus, infections should be eliminated. The hospital infections are the most possible ways for getting ill. The ways how the infecting may be eliminated are discussed in the article. The main limitation of the research is the discussion is conducted in general, without particular data that reduces its value in the scientific world. Thus, the audience of the article may be any person interested in the issue. I believe that the problem does not bring any innovation in the sphere.

Gajović, O., Tomović, M., Stanarcić, J., Canović, P., Todorović, Z., & Lazić, Z. (2011). Clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections of patients with acute central nervous system infections treated in ICU. Medicinski Glasnik, 8(2), 277-279.

The problems people have when they are infected are numerous and the risk for mortality is higher for those who suffer from acute central nervous system infections. The research does not consider the cases of other diseases and the level of mortality there that is the limitation for this case. The audience is the medical staff and the author concludes that these people are to pay more attention to patients with the problem.

Makmor-Bakry, M., Mustafa, S., & Omar, M. (2011). Antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients with nosocomial infections. International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(4), 340-342.

The basis for the research is the antimicrobial therapy for clinic patients who were subjected to the nosocomial infection. The research is directed both at staff in hospitals and patients to make sure that hey are aware of the possible ways of treatment. However, too limited duration of the research may be the limitation in the study even though the author concludes that this way of treatment is effective. Moreover, the author concludes, and I absolutely agree, that there are ways which may prevent the infection and the antimicrobial therapy for clinic patients will be unnecessary.

Control and prophylaxis of gram negative nosocomial infections in the intensive care units. (2011). HealthMed, 5(3), 639-642.

The prevention strategies for eliminating the hospital infections is discussed in detail. The researchers offer several ways which may be used for preventing the epidemics, however, the list of the measures is not full that is the research limitation. Moreover, the reasons of the infection and the ways of treatment are not correlated which seems inappropriate for me. The author concludes that each of the mentioned methods may be applied in various situations, however there are more successful and efficient methods. The patients and hospital staff are the audience for the research results consideration.

Vandijck, D., Labeau, S., Vogelaers, D., & Blot, S. (2010). Prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care patients. Nursing In Critical Care, 15(5), 251-256.

The research in this article is devoted to the prevention of nosocomial infections. However, the specific focus is provided on the catheter-related bloodstream infections. Moreover, the researchers offer the strategies aimed at nurses which work in critical care environments. The author concludes that it is possible to prevent the infection if appropriate measures are taken. Moreover, I agree that people with various diseases should be treated differently. The audience for the article is the medical staff and students who study the issue.

Rosner, F. (2007). Handwashing and Infection Control. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 74(1), 33-35.

This article offers the reasons for hand washing as the main restriction and infection spread prevention. Washing hands as often as possible and after visiting each of the patients is the way to avoid nosocomial infections. The general audience is the focus as the information should be used by anyone. The research does not bring any academic value as hand washing as the disease prevention is the universally known fact. Therefore, this is the limitation as the research just supports already known data.

Jain, S., Persaud, D., Perl, T., Pass, M., Murphy, K., Pisciotta, J., &… Sullivan, D. (2005). Nosocomial malaria and saline flush. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(7), 1097-1099.

The delivery of the infection between the patients who shared one room is researched and the results prove that the possibility of such delivery is high. The patients are the audience who are to be aware of the issue. The attention should be paid conclusion of the article where the authors stress on the high spread of the infection. Moreover, the attention should be paid to academic level of the research which is not scientific.

Klevens, R., Edwards, J. R., Richards, C. r., Horan, T. C., Gaynes, R. P., Pollock, D. A., & Cardo, D. M. (2007). Estimating Health Care-Associated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals, 2002. Public Health Reports, 122(2), 160-166.

The research offers the statistics related to the number of deaths caused by the hospital infections. It should be mentioned that the number of the deaths because of this reason is high and the author concludes that something should be doe. The study’s audience is the research professionals in the sphere who are to base their further research on the results. The author concludes that the high rate of deaths is caused by low attention to the problem.

Reference List

Control and prophylaxis of gram negative nosocomial infections in the intensive care units. (2011). HealthMed, 5(3), 639-642.

Gajović, O., Tomović, M., Stanarcić, J., Canović, P., Todorović, Z., & Lazić, Z. (2011). Clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections of patients with acute central nervous system infections treated in ICU. Medicinski Glasnik, 8(2), 277-279.

Jain, S., Persaud, D., Perl, T., Pass, M., Murphy, K., Pisciotta, J., &… Sullivan, D. (2005). Nosocomial malaria and saline flush. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(7), 1097-1099.

Klevens, R., Edwards, J. R., Richards, C. r., Horan, T. C., Gaynes, R. P., Pollock, D. A., & Cardo, D. M. (2007). Estimating Health Care-Associated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals, 2002. Public Health Reports, 122(2), 160-166.

Makmor-Bakry, M., Mustafa, S., & Omar, M. (2011). Antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients with nosocomial infections. International Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(4), 340-342.

Navarro-Zarza, J. E., Álvarez-Hernández, E. E., Casasola-Vargas, J. C., Estrada-Castro, E. E., & Burgos-Vargas, R. R. (2010). Prevalence of community-acquired and nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus, 19(1), 43-48.

Rosner, F. (2007). Handwashing and Infection Control. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 74(1), 33-35.

Šuljagić, V., Jevtić, M., Djordjević, B., Romić, P., Ilić, R., Stanković, N., &… Jovelić, A. (2011). Epidemiology of nosocomial colonization/infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. in patients of six surgical clinics in war and peacetime. Vojnosanitetski Pregled: Military Medical & Pharmaceutical Journal of Serbia & Montenegro, 68(8), 661-668.

Vandijck, D., Labeau, S., Vogelaers, D., & Blot, S. (2010). Prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care patients. Nursing In Critical Care, 15(5), 251-256.

Yen, M., Lu, Y., Huang, P., Chen, C., Chen, Y., & Lin, Y. E. (2010). Quantitative evaluation of infection control models in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of SARS virus to healthcare workers: Implication to nosocomial viral infection control for healthcare workers. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 42(6-7), 510-515.

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