Our planet could be characterized by the extreme diversity of species that populate it. This multiplicity comes from the great variety of landscapes and conditions under which a certain unit has to survive. The environment conditions the appearance of the unique peculiarities of the body and behavioral patterns needed to help a sample to survive and guarantee its further evolution. However, the acquisition of these unusual traits and peculiarities was a long-term process known as evolution. It could be characterized by several important aspects that predetermined the modern image of our planet.
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As stated above there are numerous species that managed to survive and adapt to certain complicated conditions. Generally, a species could be defined as a group of organisms that interbreed in nature and could give fertile offspring. All units within this very group have common features and evolution impacts the acquisition of new ones in terms of this block. At the same time, all organisms of one species that interbreed and live in a certain area could be called population. It is a larger group that might be characterized by numerous genetic variations caused by the impact of the four forces of evolution. Yet, these variations, or modifications of the organisms structure, are crucial for the evolution as they predetermine the acquisition of certain traits needed for survival.
Besides, four forces of evolution impact species. These are mutation, gene flow, gene drift, and natural selection. The mutation could be considered a spontaneous alteration of genetic material that procedures the appearance of new variation (Haviland et al. 365). It has an outstanding impact on the acquisition of new traits and peculiarities.
Haviland et al. also describe genetic flow as “the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another” (363). It often occurs between species that live in various areas and have not interbred before. It is an important force as it conditions the appearance of new mutations and peculiarities needed to survive.
Genetic drift is another force similar to the previous one. However, it could be defined as “chance fluctuations in of allele frequencies in a gene pool of a population” (Haviland et al. 363). Usually, this very alteration is caused by the random sampling of organisms and provides them with the needed qualities to survive. The random character of this process impacts the acquisition of new significant patterns.
Finally, natural selection is the evolutionary process through which various environmental factors exert pressure and condition dominance of certain individuals (Haviland et al. 365). It is extremely vital for evolution as it guarantees as only the strongest representatives of the living world.
Besides, all these forces impact the appearance of various variations that condition the great diversity and ability to survive needed for the further evolving.
Nevertheless, all these processes are vital for the evolution of a certain species. In case there is no opportunity for gene drift or flow, it might suffer from isolation either geographic of genetic. A population might lose its ability to reproduce. That is why speciation, or the appearance of new species among this isolated one, is often observed to avoid total extinction and guarantee further survival.
In general, evolution is a complicated process that is impacted by several various factors and forces that predetermine the acquisition of a certain peculiarity needed for a populations survival and further reproducing.
Haviland, William, Harald Prins, Dana Warlath and Bunny McBride. The Essence of Anthropology. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.