The article suggests that despite attempts by some of the Latin American regimes to assimilate the marginalized indigenous societies, the latter are still mainly subjugated culturally and economically.
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Official anti-racist positions slowly become the norm in Latin America and the integration of indigenous populations through indigenismo was given continental respectability in 1940 at the First Inter-American Indian Conference held in Mexico. (434)
The article thus suggests that the underlying reasons towards multicultural democratizing is not driven by the real indigenistas but rather the apologists or racial democrats who just like their predecessors the racist colonialists regard the assimilation of the indigenous people and culture into the mainstream white European ruling class and Mestizos will enhance nationalism.
This has been mainly manifest in Brazil and Mexico who to their credit positively strived to assimilate the indigenous customs into the mainstream society.
The article traces the Latin American multiracial model global impact to the unrest in southern Mexico by the Zapatistats or the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN). The revolutionaries consciously linked their movement unto the indigenous people’s social struggle during the formative Mexican revolution.
The movement was also closely predisposed to leftist/Marxist ideologies and own indigenous cultural norms forming a global Zapitista network philosophy, to further international union. Zapististas hence integrated their indigenous nationalist cultural demands with contemporary social-political demands that resonated well with many other globally marginalized groups, particularly within their Latin American backyard.
The significant themes thus propagated by these groups, including autonomy and liberal aspirations, made them more globally accepted, especially amongst the racially subjugated indigenous groups. The EZLN has also supported critics of economic liberalization linked to social injustice brought about by neo-capitalism that inherently further entrench poverty and despotism amongst the mostly rural-based indigenous communities.
The article has also traced the neglect of the Afro-Americans have been predominantly sidelined even as other marginalized communities made large strides, particularly in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela. The descendants of slaves are deprived the prospect to own land, customs and other sovereign rights. They are the most economically and racially deflated group primarily suffering lack of ‘cultural citizenship’.
Nonetheless, Brazil, which has the most sizable black population (49 percent), has strived to integrate the Afro-descendants effectively into the national social-cultural fabric. Other notable migrants are of Arab origin mostly Christians and some Muslims.
The article thus suggests dominance and inferiority linked to racial disparities are artificially created to gratify the socio-political agenda of the paramount bloc. Consequently, ethnic and cultural grouping are not confined to or within communities.