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Research Project: Underage Drinking Research Paper

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Updated: Sep 14th, 2022

Opening Statement

The problem of underage drinking is connected to a great number of reasons, aspects, and circumstances that are impossible to incorporate into one research. A plethora of social, economic, cultural, environmental, and psychological underpinnings shape a basis for consistent and in-depth study of alcohol consumption among the adolescents. According to the U.S. statistics on underage drinking, nearly 5000 adolescents under 21 die because of underage drinking. In particular, the dates reveals about 1900 deaths from car accidents, 1600 homicides, 300 suicides, and hundreds of related injuries because of substance abuse (NIAAA, 2012). The nationwide surveys also prove that drinking among young people is a widespread phenomenon. NIAAA (2012) reports that the majority of 12th graders, 10th graders, and 8th graders in the U.S. have had experience in consuming alcohol. The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (2010) also provides deplorable statistics on underage drinking. Hence, students under the age category of 15-18 years old consume about 11 % of alcohol of all the consumed in the United States. What is more threatening is that over 90 % of alcohol is severely abused by adolescents (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). Overall, underage drinking is serious public health concern with regard to the increasing rates of substance abuse because it remains one of the basic reasons for higher morbidity rates among young people under the age of 18.

The threatening statistics data about alcohol consumption rates impels to conduct scientific exploration and investigation of reasons in different regions in the United States. In this respect, little research is carried out on the underage drinking in the West Indies. The chosen region analysis will help to define peculiarities of underage consumption owing to the fact the no specific legal restrictions are imposed on alcohol use among adolescents.

Background of the Study

Framing the History of the Project

The phenomenon of alcohol consumption among adolescents has been heavily studied by researchers to define the preconditions and undercurrents of alcohol consumption, its influence on health, as well as the external factors predetermining and aggravating the problem. It should be stressed that consequences of excessive drinking can be both short-termed and long-termed for adolescents. In this respect, long-term effects of alcohol use among children involves the increased rates of alcohol dependence, decline in academic performance due to students’ reluctance to learn. Memory impairments are also tangible after regular consumption of alcohol. According to the studies conducted by Collins et al. (2007), substance abuse is strongly associated with the influence of environmental factors, such as marketing and advertising of spirits, as well as availability of licensed establishment in many regions. According to the results, people under the age of 18 disposed to alcohol advertisement were likely to consume alcohol than those who were not disposed to any advertisements (Collins et al., 2007; Murgraff, Parrott, Bennett, 1999). In addition, the findings provided by Paschal et al., (2007) suggest that use of sources of alcohol is greatly connected to underage drinking rather than to use of commercial goals of alcohol consumptions, as well as perceived ease of receiving alcohol products. Regarding the previous researchers, the social influence on underage drinking is evident. Ali and Dwyer (2010) underscore the above-presented findings with their research on the influence of social networks on substance abuse. Particular attention is focused on defining the role of peer social network in increasing rates of drinking among adolescents. The study empirically explains drinking behavior of teenagers and analyzes the problems of contextual and situational effects. A positive influence of close friends and relatives, therefore, diminishes the frequency of underage drinking.

The study of socio-cultural effects of substance abuse has also provided evidence of impact of external factors on underage drinking rates. Specifically, Barroso, Mendes, and Barbosa (2009) have conducted a research on defining the phenomenon of underage drinking among Portuguese students to define that core reasons of consumptions are closely connected to previously established patterns of behavior. These behavioral models were largely due to harmful effects of adolescent interaction with encouraging and situational contexts promoting consumption. According to Barroso, Mendes, and Barbosa (2009), “there is a relation between adolescents’ critical periods of behavioral development and the possibility of implementing effective preventive measures” (p. 348). To back up the arguments, Forster et al. (2007), along with Simantov et al. (2000) emphasize the essential role of social and family background in shaping attitudinal and behavioral patterns of children. As a result, adolescents lacking proper upbringing and education, as well as those experiencing violence and abuse, have higher predisposition to consume alcohol. Further debates on the connection of moral frustration and depression on alcohol use at an early age have also been disclosed by Gonzalez, Collins, & Bradizza (2009) who connect depression with increasing rates of substance abuse in social settings. The findings reveal that greater suicidal inclination is observed during greater frequency of heavy drinking while being along.

Social correlates and influences of alcohol consumption among young people have also been studied by Marsden et al. (2005), along with Hingson, Pascal, and Williams (2004). Specifically, the researchers focused their observations on establishing personal, social, and family correlates and influences of alcohol use. Importantly, the authors have provided as consistent and in-depth evaluation of social behaviors within social and family context to define how these variables are interconnected.

Gaps and/or Deficiencies in Prior Research

A substantial overview of literature related to the topic of substance abuse among adolescents creates a number of scientific gaps. Specifically, little research is made on defining the role of legal prohibitions and social discouragement of alcohol consumption among young people. More importantly, the research does not provide exact cultural and social characteristics of defined region – the West Indies. Finally, religious concerns have not been highlighted either. The given research will prove that religious and legal concerns should be connected to social and cultural factors triggering children to consume alcohol.

Importance of the Present Study

Because the study will relate to a specific region in the United States, it will contribute to evaluating the demographic, economic and social situation and will provide a full picture of family context influencing children upbringing. More importantly, the study will primarily focus on exploring unique feature of West Indie population with regard to the U.S. statistics on alcohol consumption among adolescents.

Regarding the above-presented grounds, the potential audience for the given research will include the West Indian regions. Parents and educatiors expressing the direct interest in welfare of community and striving to create a healthy atmosphere for their children can satisfy their inquiries once the research is conducted. In addition, the legal authorities of the region also need to realize the magnitude of the problem so as to work out approaches and measures reinforcing the laws. An extensive overview of the problem, therefore, can provide a solid foundation for further studies in the field. Finally, internal security service can also benefit from the research findings because it can significantly raise their awareness in terms of the necessity to enhance the safety and welfare of the West Indian citizens.

Problem Statement

The main focus of the study is adolescents under the age of 12-16. Teachers often fail to pay proper attention to this age category and rely mostly on psychological problems on the process of maturing and growing up. Due to the fact that no legal prohibitions are established concerning underage drinking, there is much greater probability of substance abuse at this region. The problem has appeared with increased attention to social, cultural, and legal factors enhancing the drinking rates among teenagers. Importantly, mass media culture has also made a significant contribution to the problem aggravation.

Purpose of the Study

Research Design

The purpose of the research is to obtain qualitative and statistical results from the identified sample. The study will be based on an ethnographical approach permitting to study social, ethnical, religious, and cultural backgrounds of the sample population. Several participants will be asked to take part in the interview to study behavioral and attitudinal patterns used by the individuals while responding to the issues relating to the purpose of the study.

Intent

The main goal of the research is to understand and explore the relation between underage drinking and social factors, including culture, environment, family background, gender, and education.

Central Phenomenon of the Study

The main focus of the study is made on defining the groups of adolescents that are more inclined to consume alcohol, as well as on analyzing how underage drinking is connected to environmental factors.

Central Definition of the Central Phenomenon

In the United States, the prohibition of underage consumption of alcoholic beverages was not always the case. Hence, the National Minimum Drinking Age Act issues in 1984 remains in effect and “[does] not prohibit persons under the age of 21 years of age from purchasing or publicly possessing alcoholic beverages”. However, the U.S. Supreme Court reconsidered this issue in 1987 to have adopted a new legislature prohibiting young people under the age of 21 “from possessing alcoholic beverages” and ”purchasing and consuming alcoholic beverages” (Alcohol Policy Information System, n. d., n. p.). In this respect, regardless of the number of exceptions concerning the prohibition, the U.S. government has taken a greater control of the issue due to the increasing social problems relating to alcohol consumption.

Research Questions

With regard to problem statement and the purpose of the research, the research questions will focus on the following:

  1. Is alcohol consumption in West Indian public schools students aged 12-21 a significant problem?
  2. Do age, gender, culture, religion, and family problems have a potent impact on this problem?
  3. What is the connection between alcohol drinking and the environmental factors?

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Theoretical and Conceptual Basis

The theoretical framework of the given study will be premised on the Social Learning Theory, which also called Social Cognitive Theory. Firstly introduced by Albert Bandura, the theory refers to many approaches of learning theories about moral actions. From a social learning perspective, hence, it is possible to learn how to behave morally. From childhood, individuals are traditionally encouraged to behave correctly and are punished when their actions are not morally justified. In the course of development and growth, children internalize the parents’ expectation and use established standards of conduct while making moral decisions. According to Bandura (1969), “…provision of social models is also an indispensible means of transmitting and modifying behavior in situations where errors are likely to produce costly or fatal consequences” (p. 213). Interpreting this, behavior is determined by a sophisticated interaction of behavioral, situational, personal, and contextual factors. This process is also called reciprocal determinism implying that environmental processes and cognitive variables interact.

Previous Applications of the Theoretical Framework

An extensive overview of previous studies based on analysis of social cognitive theory has revealed its application to such spheres as academic performance and behavioral development. In order to understand the full potential of the presented theories, it is necessary to define how the conceptual framework can contribute to disclosing research questions and providing exhaustive findings.

In the studies presented by Card (2011), the research develops a new theoretical framework for studying the nature of aggression among schoolchildren through interactions and relations. Using a social cognitive theory, Card (2011) provides a new independent framework embracing viable explanations of relation between a victim and an aggressor. According to the scholar, Bandura’s social cognitive theory contributes to underlying such aggressive behaviors as self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and outcome values. All these components are independently predictive with regard to individual differences. In addition, Card (2011) reports that the theory “…provides a useful description of individual differences in social cognitions underlying individual differences in schoolchildren’s aggressive behavior” (p. 191). Regarding the presented framework, aggression can be one of the main reasons for underage drinking, being a sign of aggressive behavior.

While considering the extent to which social and cultural environments can influence teenagers’ behavior, it is purposeful to resort to the studies provided by Zentall (2011) who researches the limits and potential consequences of imitation. While defining the actual scope of imitation, the scholars refers to the behavior itself and the behavior that is modeled, which means, “…when a child imitates the behavior of an adults, one assumes that the childe understand that the two behaviors match” (Zentall, 2011, p. 233). While describing social influences on child’s behavior, the author refers to contagious behaviors that evolve with regard to their adaptive value, but not with reference to the learning ability. In addition, Zentall (2011) insists on the idea that social stimuli play a pivotal role in acquiring the target behavior. In this respect, observing a performer can resemble a Pavlovian scheme of imitating actions. Observational learning, therefore, can be associated with a kind of transformation. Perhaps, such models of behavior can also explain why adolescents are prone to consuming alcohol.

While thinking over the variables and major concepts that should be used in the research, specific emphasis should be placed on the analysis of self-efficacy, observational learning, and self-regulated learning. All these concepts are examined in the studies introduced by Erlich and Russ-Eft (2011). The scholars have focused on the study of motivators and incentives guiding and triggering students to progress their goals. However, they go beyond the matter of external factors and present internal factors as the key incentives for people to follow while accomplishing certain actions. Judging from this research, considering internal motivators in vacuum is also reasonable to define the main causes of underage drinking.

Finally, Van Zundert, Nijhof, and Engels (2009) analyze reasons for adolescent to start smoking. The researchers have applied to the Social Cognitive Theory to define the correlations between smoking and adolescent behavior. These qualitative studies provide an incentive to introduce Bandura’s approach to understanding the relations between external factors and internal motivators. Overall, the given studies provide an extended overview of the theoretical framework and create solid ground for conducting the given research.

The Major Propositions or Hypotheses of the Theory

Bandura’s Social Cognitive theory underscores the importance of observational learning. In particular, children observing a specific action or behavior can be either motivated to perform this action or be resistant to perform this action depending on what the outcomes are likely to be. In this respect, the scholar suggests there is a close relation between performance and learning. A learner can realize the basic requirements to completing an assignment that is not explicitly revealed in a learner’s behavior (Newman & Newman, 2011, p. 41). Regarding the research question, learning of certain patterns of behavior can be carried out through observations, which proves the fact of influence of social factors on underage drinking.

Rationale for the Theoretical Expectation or Conceptual Lens

With regard to main definitions and positions of the Social Learning Theory, as well as the purpose of the research, cognitive and environmental variable will be used to provide an analysis of adolescents’ behavior and define the main factors motivating children to consume alcohol. Specifically, the environmental variable is based on the principle of observational learning, with an emphasis on the main patterns of imitation and behavior modeling. Further cognitive processes are based on the phenomenon of self-efficacy that shapes children’s outlooks and decisions either to consume or to reject consuming alcohol. Despite the cognitive process, the focuse will be made on the analysis of social and cultural environments as the main facilitators of underage drinking.

Nature of the Study

Design

Paradigm

Because the study will primarily be based on observational methodologies, the qualitative method prevails. A qualitative research analysis is more appropriate for this study because it allows to define specific qualitative patterns and models disclosing the reasons for alcohol consumption among adolescents. In this respect, because the study seeks to define reasons for underage drinking through understanding socially and culturally predetermined behaviors. To define the connection between underage drinking and environmental factors, observation and qualitative analysis can contribute to removing all biases and misconceptions.

Design

For the given study, an ethnographical approach has been chosen for the purpose of analyzing humankind classification with regard to race, nationality, ethnicity, origins, and typical character traits that can be found in the region of West Indies. In order to complete a qualitative ethnology study, an observational checklist will be composed to examine the main peculiarities of social setting (See Appendix 1). When the checklists are completed by the identified groups, the participants will be split into the groups in accordance with culturally predetermined characteristics. The next stage will be introduction of interview questions designed equally for each group. Beside ethnographical classification, age classification will also be presented to identify which group of teenagers is more likely to consume alcohol.

Rationale for the design

An ethnographical approach to conducting a qualitative research is justified with regard to the purpose of the research, the chosen participants and variables introduced to the study. Because the main research question seeks to define the connection between underage drinking and environmental influences, the analysis of cultural phenomena is indispensible for learning what knowledge of a specific cultural object or concept reflects (Lambert, Glacken, & McCarron, 2011). What is more important is that “…ethnography involves the researcher gathering information about people first-hand, through observing and questioning participants” (p. 18). Face-to-face communication can be successful in case a researcher objectively evaluates the received data and does not resort to subjective reconsideration with reliance on generally accepted terms. Other than that, the chosen research design fully meets the research objectives.

Methodology

Participants

For the given study, 100 participants have been selected. They include students from West Indies public and private schools. Before taking part in the research, the participants will have to fill in the observational checklist for researchers to draw demographic and ethnographic data.

Site

The region covers the participants from the British West Indies regions. For the given study, only one district will be chosen for analysis – the Bahamas – because it is impossible to cover all districts of the region Average, about 25 students under the age of 21 are considered for the study. Because there are no accurate laws controlling alcohol consumption under this age, this group should be carefully examined to define how absence of restricted measures can influence the current situation.

Researcher’s role in data collection procedures

The task of a research is to send the observation checklists to the participants that previously agreed to take part in the study and analyze the received data to divide the participants into two groups (12-16 and 17-21). The participants that are over 21 years old will not participate in the research. Once the groups are identified, the research will have to conduct a set of interviews to collect the data and analyze and synthesize the obtained results. However, it is important for a researcher to be an observer, but not a participant, to ensure an objective delivery of information.

Sampling

For collecting the material and conducting questionnaires, the participants will be chosen with reliance on random sampling. This form of probability sampling perfectly meets the requirements of the study and provides sufficient information related to the research problem.

Regarding the fact that the population of the Bahamas amounts to about 354 thousand people, the population sample would be 384. Because students count approximately 25-50 % of the population, the chosen sample – 100 participants – will be able to meet the requirements of the research. All these calculations have been made with regard to 5 % of margin error and 95 % of confidence level. If the confidence level is higher than 95 %, the sample should be more than 100 participants.

Data collection procedures

The data collection procedures will be composed of three stages. These include sending observational checklists, carrying out group discussions, and making up questionnaires for conducting interviews. The observational checklist will be sent by e-mail to 350 participants Along with the observational checklist, letters were also sent to participants’ parents to receive consent for taking part in the survey (See Appendix). Of this number, only 100 replied to the e-mail and agreed to participate in the study. The rest of the e-mailed candidatures were withdrawn because of certain circumstances. Hence, part of the declined participants was not able to answer the e-mail and fulfill the observational checklist while others did not access the survey because their parents did not approve the research.

Further stage of the survey involves focus group discussion that aims to define common behaviors and attitudes among the chosen participants. During the discussion, which last about 25 minutes, parents can accompany their children to make sure that all ethical concerns are perfectly met. The groups are guided by experienced researchers who previously grant the parental content for conducting the discussion. The discussion itself seeks to outline what children know about alcohol, including potential outcomes and consequences of consumption. Specifically, the aim of the observers is to understand whether children are fully aware of the threats of substance abuse. However, the researchers should ask questions and make notes about their observations; they are not allowed to present information about the actual dangers and negative outcomes of alcohol consumption to make the last stage of research more transparent and objective.

The final stage of the survey is interviewing. Each participant will be surveyed separately, without parents’ guidance. Questions will be generally specific requiring expanded responses. Before the interview process, all the respondents will be informed that the conversation will be recoded on a tape recorder and will be further transcribed to provide findings and results to the study. Each participant will also be informed about the purpose and scope of the study (See Appendix 2). The interview questionnaire will be composed of 7 questions and, the participants will have about 5-7 minutes to answer the questions. One interview will take about 35-45 minutes in average. Because there will be 100 participants, there will be 10 highly qualified interviewers who will conduct the interview and record the material. Hence, judging from the core stage of data collection, it should be stressed that qualitative data analysis and group assessment should be carried out using a multi-dimensional approach to highlight the most productive ways and identify connotative meanings of answers, as well as ideas communicated in the speech (Cresswell, 2007). While conducting an interview, the researchers should also focus on the ways the respondents behave, as well as what decisions they make. More importantly, it is necessary to analyze how much time it will take the participants to think over the question before he/she starts answering.

Data analysis and interpretation plan

While transcribing and processing the obtained data, several approaches and techniques will be used. First of all, during the stage of observational checklist analysis, it will be possible to identify the percentage of participants in accordance with gender, age, nationality, school attendance, religion, and family background. All these aspects belong to the group of environmental factors that can influence the correlation analysis between external influences and alcohol consumption among adolescents. The received data will provide background for further analysis and synthesis of information. Thus, the collected data will supply an extensive overview of gender characteristics with regard to the differences in alcohol consumption among girls and boys. Specifically, this information will also present an insight into the connection between gender and culturally predetermined variables that have impact on underage drinking. Second, the collected data, will also render the information on nationality, religion, and origins, and will provide the majority group within an identified sample. Finally, consideration of school attendance in private and public sectors will also display existing problems. Hence, it will also indicate the level of social and cultural welfare in schools. All these components will be taken into deeper consideration while proceeding with the focus group discussion.

The second stage will involve discussing issues related to receiving information about adolescents’ awareness of and knowledge on alcohol consumption. The basic thematic frames will be confined to the following aspects:

  1. Discussing the problem of alcohol consumption: brief overview;
  2. Defining children’s attitude to alcohol consumption;
  3. Family background: learning about family traditions and culture of drinking;

The above-presented thematic nodes are necessary to discover the main sources and causes of substance abuse among children. It can also prove that lack of awareness of negative outcomes of alcoholic use can also be the main reason for consuming alcohol.

The third stage of interview will be aimed at analyzing qualitative data received, as well as adolescent behavior observed during the interview. Once all the interviews are conducted, the information will be transcribed into separate files. The files will first be analyzed in accordance with gender characteristics and family background; further, national characteristics will be discussed. Finally, social factors, such as school atmosphere and communication will be evaluated.

The coding process will be carried out with the help of specific software NVivo 9 to promote the process and facilitate data collection and analysis. Specifically, the use of software significantly simplifies the process of data coding in terms of organizing ideas and sorting out information. Identifying specific themes has created broader perspectives for creating groups of common concepts and patterns. The united patterns, which will be organized as thematic nodes, can be effectively proposed by NVivo that helps introduce a clear and logical structure to each passage of information.

Before proceeding with the process of data coding, it is purposeful to choose the materials and resources that necessary for synthesis. While using the software, both advantages and disadvantages can occur. Specifically, the basic advantage o using automatic devices lies in effective and quick transformation of information into meaningful points. However, before using NVivo, it is imperative to look through its main functions and possibilities. With the help of the computer program, the interviews can also be turned in annotations. Some passages from the transcript can be transformed to define the most and least used words during the interview. Organizing data in accordance with demographic characteristics is also possible with the help of NVivo 9. Specifically, demographic charts and maps will be created to have an extensive and systematic view of the obtained data. Despite the limitations and challenges this program can create, NVivo 9 is a valuable contribution to the given research because it has a wide range of alternatives to choose the most important data for the coding process.

Finally, the obtained thematic nodes and charts will be further processed to compare and contrast the information and define how this information can be used to answer the research questions.

Limitations

Potential Design and Methodological Weaknesses of the Study

While analyzing limitations to the research design, there are several pitfalls that can inevitably occur while organizing and selecting the sample section. Because it is difficult to define the percentage of the population in the region of the West Indies for the current moment, the demographic data has been used for the last year. Further, the chosen sample has also been used with regard to the statistical data received from the national surveys. Finally, only one region has been chosen to obtain the results and findings about the West Indies region because it was impossible to conduct face-to-face interviews with the participants from all the districts of the region. The Bahamas has been selected as the basic district where all studies are going to take place.

Assessing the Weaknesses

While considering the process of collecting information, objectivity is the primary concern of the research. However, due to the existence of human factors, some of the answers obtained from the observational checklists and the interviews are not always clear and transparent. At the first stage of data collection, it is impossible to verify whether the checklists are fulfilled by the adolescents. There is a probability that they were either considered by parents or by adolescents under the parents’ control. Second, the interview can also involve some biases in terms of researchers’ behavior, despite the fact that the chosen observers are qualified and experienced scholars.

Threats to Quality Addressed in the Study

As far the experimental approach to analyzing the controlled groups, the threat to the internal validity can occur. Because the groups are identified in accordance with such variables as gender, nationality, and age, the independent variable chosen for one group can have different outcomes for another group of the participants. Second, there are also learned characteristics about the participants, such as motivation to participate, which can significantly differ. With regard to this, the results and the findings of the study are not always objective and consistent.

Ethical Concerns

While conducting the primary research, it is imperative to consider all ethical and moral concerns. In this respect, because the sample population includes underage participants, the permission will be taken from their parents to take part in the interview. Further, while making up the list of questions for the interview, difficult, biased, and challenging questions have been avoided. Questions about religion and personal questions have also been presented a neutral form. All the researchers and observers involved into the survey have been trained for conducting the interview so that the research itself has been deprived of personal opinions and biases to provide both sides of the research with a fair and objective consideration. Under parents’ requests, the interview responses of the participants will be kept anonymous. The researchers sent the letters of confirmation to the participants and let them know about the research results. Finally, accuracy of information representation is paramount and, therefore, interview responses have been presented with reliance on communication context. All observations will also be considered with putting those into the relevant context.

Significance of the Study

Practical Contributions of the Study

Before proceeding with the study, similar researches have carefully been considered to find out that there is little evidence on the state of alcohol consumption among adolescents in the West Indies. Most importantly, because the study seeks to define the association between underage drinking and environmental factors, it will be possible to prove the influence of social and cultural determinants on children’s attitude to alcohol consumption. In addition, the analysis of different groups can also reveals the evidence concerning the differences in consuming alcohol with regard to age and gender. Finally, the study can provide a more extensive overview of social factors as the core reasons of alcohol consumption.

For Whom the Study Is Important

The ethnographical approach to exploring the reasons of underage drinking can provide sufficient grounds for creating rules and regulations controlling alcohol consumption among adolescents. Furthermore, the obtained results can also influence the statistical data and provide reforms to education and public health in the West Indies. Psychological characteristics and external factors combined can provide implications for the researchers to study the phenomenon of underage drinking with regard to such variable as gender, nationality, and age, apart from the analysis of health risks.

Implications for Social Change

While studying the problem of underage drinking, one should not ignore environmental factors because they can significantly contribute to working out effective interventions and prevention measures. The approaches, therefore, will be specifically connected with introducing social change to the public structure. For instance, environmental measure can include raising price for spirits, increasing the legal drinking age, reinforcing the existing regulations, and inventing school-based programs and reforms. Family programs can also become available because family background has a tangible impact on children’s development. Specifically, parents should re-evaluate their approaches to children and establish clear and consistent rules that would allow them to monitor children’s behavior and reduce the probability of underage drinking.

The necessity to introduce environmental intervention for coping with the problem of underage consumption of alcohol is approved by the Institute of Medicine that has issued as report on Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility (2003). The report is primarily concerned with social actors that should introduce consistent and systematic studies of underage drinking.

References

Alcohol Policy Information System (n. d.). Highlight on Underage Drinking. Web.

Ali M. M., & Dwyer D. S., (2010). Social network effects in alcohol consumption among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 337-342.

Bandura, A. (1969). Social-Learning Theory of Identificatory Processes. In D. A. Goslin. Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. pp. 213-262.

Barroso, T., Mendes, A., & Barbosa, A. (2009). Analysis of the alcohol consumption phenomenon among adolescents: study carried out with adolescents in intermediate public education. Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem (RLAE), 17(3), 347-353.

Card, N. A. (2011). Toward a relationship perspective on aggression among schoolchildren: Integrating social cognitive and interdependence theories. Psychology of Violence, 1(3), 188-201.

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Web.

Collins, R. L., Ellickson, P.L., Mc Caffery, D., Hambarsoomians, K (2007). Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and its Relationship to Underage Drinking. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(6), 527-534.

Erlich, R. J., & Russ-Eft, D. (2011). Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes. NACADA Journal, 31(2), 5-15.

Foster, S. E., Vaughan, R.D., Foster, W.H., Califon, J.A.( 2003). Alcohol Consumption and Expenditures for Underage Drinking and Adult Excessive Drinking, Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(8), 989-995.

Gonzalez V. M., Collins, R. L.., & Bradizza, C. M. (2009). Solitary and social heavy drinking, suicidal ideation, and drinking motives in underage college drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 993-999.

Hingson, R., Pascal, A., & Williams, A (2004). Underage Drinking: Frequency, Consequences, and Intervention. Traffic Injury Prevention, 5(3), 228-236.

Institute of Medicine (2003). Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Consensus Report. Web.

Lambert, V., Glacken, M., & McCarron, M. (2011). Employing an ethnographic approach: key characteristics. (Cover story). Nurse Researcher, 19(1), 17-24.

Marsden, J., Boys, A., Farrell, M., Stillwell, G., Hutchings, K., Hillebrand, J., & Griffiths, P. (2005). Personal and Social Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among Mid-Adolescents. British Journal Of Developmental Psychology, 23(3), 427-450.

Murgraff, V., Parrott, A.M., Bennett, P (1999). Risky single-occasion drinking among ST among definition, correlates, policy, and intervention: A broad overview of research findings. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 34(1), 3-14.

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2011). Development through Life: A Psychological Approach. US: Cengage Learning.

NIAAA. (2012). Underage Drinking Research Initiative. Web.

PaschallM, Grube, J.W., Black, C., Ringwalt, C (2007). Is Commercial Alcohol Availability Related to Adolescent Alcohol Sources and Alcohol Use? Findings from a Multi-Level Study. Journal of Adolescents Health, 41(2), 168-174.

Simantov, E., Schoen, C., Klein, J (2000). Health- Compromising Behavior: Why Do Adolescents Smoke or Drink? Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 154(10), 1025-1033.

Van Zundert, R. M. P., Nijhof, L. M., &.Engels, R. C. (2009). Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a theoretical framework to predict smoking relapse among daily smoking adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 281-286.

Zentall, T. R. (2011). Social learning mechanisms: Implications for a cognitive theory of imitation. Interaction Studies, 12(2), 233-261.

Appendix 1: Observational Checklist

Defining Cultural and National Characteristics Just tick the most appropriate answer, or write down your information
  1. Gender
Male Female
  1. Nationality
  1. Age (choose the category)
12-16 17-21
  1. Origins
  1. Is West Indies (the Bahamas) your native region?
  1. How long do you live here?
  1. Religion
  1. Schools attended
Private Public
  1. Assess your school environment
Basically acceptable Positive with not reasons for stress Basically oppressive Negative.
  1. Do you observe some cultural traditions?
Yes No
What is you parents’ attitude to alcohol consumption?

Appendix 2: Interview Questions

  • Q1: Do you know what alcohol is? Are you aware of all consequences this substance can have for your learning and development?
  • Q2: Does you family follows specific celebrations and traditions? Do you consume alcohol during those celebrations?
  • Q3: Do you talk about alcohol with your peers?
  • Q4: What is you attitude to people consuming alcohol?
  • Q5: How do you think why they consume alcohol?
  • Q6: Have you ever tried beer, wine, or other alcohol beverages?
  • Q7: Do your parents approve of your consuming spirits? Do you someone whose parents permit their children consume alcohol?

Thank you for taking your time and participating in this study. I will send the transcript of the interview and my notes for your to see if any corrections are necessary.

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Work Cited

"Research Project: Underage Drinking." IvyPanda, 14 Sept. 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/research-project-underage-drinking/.

1. IvyPanda. "Research Project: Underage Drinking." September 14, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/research-project-underage-drinking/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Research Project: Underage Drinking." September 14, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/research-project-underage-drinking/.

References

IvyPanda. 2022. "Research Project: Underage Drinking." September 14, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/research-project-underage-drinking/.

References

IvyPanda. (2022) 'Research Project: Underage Drinking'. 14 September.

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