Standards and Standardization
Over a period of time, standardization has been widely known as a process that entails developing and implementing technical commodities standards. Commodities in this case include services and products. Standardization as applicable in social sciences is closely allied to the good-natured solutions for harmonizing problems (Barker & Aydin 1991, p.21).
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Often, the term refers to a state where each partaking party is bound to realize shared gains by making mutually consistent decisions. Standards can only be achieved when appropriate decisions are ratified and consistent decisions are made.
Standardization is regarded as an obligation in the current organizational backgrounds. It represents one of the most proficient techniques used to maximize on the utilization of organization resources. It has been embraced at international levels by multinational corporations that are compelled to do so by the globalized markets.
In fact, market globalization call for regulations and standards that have the capacity to provide corporations with eminence unification conditions that are integral in a wide-range of marketable products.
Standardization has been used by multinational corporations for recognitions as well as to take standards elaboration and implementation initiatives (Barker & Aydin 1991, p.21).
This is necessary since commercial enterprises and clients attitudes are based on standardization, believing that corporations that give priorities to standardizations have the chance to dominate the market.
Basically, consumers materialize to be an imperative force which pushes for standardization. They always require commodities that have high market standards. This implies that corporations are obliged to implement standards which link up with product qualities being presented to the market.
Thus, corporations find it a conditional practice that must be approved in order to expand and maintain their consumer bases. The consumer demand impacts are apparent in standardized activities that corporations assume in order to harmonize the efforts of the producers so as to accomplish the individual client complex needs (Barker & Aydin 1991, p.28).
Consumers similarly struggle to stimulate collectivities via selecting products which nearly reflect and correspond to the recipients’ requirements.
Selecting an adequate solution for a need requires familiarity with the market atmosphere and the consumers. For instance, consumers always choose an ambient cost-effective product from a corporation besides gauging its operational efficiency.
The precise and clear definitions of the characteristics of a particular product quantity always tend to amass the consumers loyalty and faith with respect to enterprise, trade and economic ventures within the entrepreneurial purlieu. It allows for the commercialization and development of markets procedural precincts considering client-provider relations.
Such an association requires that the technical clients support and any other technicalities be clarified taking into account the commodities technical systems. When client oriented technical system is provided, it might be deemed as product and service facet of particular fields.
The specific field aspects include legal, organizational, economical, technical and social fields (Barker & Aydin 1991, p.31). Furthermore, it can be linked to isolated activities namely environmental and consumer protections as well as engineering.
The concepts cited in standards can be accredited to the fundamental specialty discipline principles that warrant grounds for systematic terminologies.
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Usually, the ideas approach the general and practical modalities of the real-world phenomenon which develops collaborations within the varied science branches. In regard to this, standardization emanates as a basic constituent of the entire scientific activity (Kinney & Clark 2004, p.297).
Standardization places consumers’ rights amongst its various perspectives. In most organizations, consumers’ safety falls under the prioritized aspects considered to be of great essence. Food safety is a clear example that most corporations deem as an isolated and significant concept. Generally, the perspective has hosted variations within the legal and economic systems of various global corporations.
The food safety area has ideally endured modifications from the implementation of universal market regulations that the European Community approved. This community affirmed the regulations and recommendations for suitable foodstuffs (Kinney & Clark 2004, p.301).
For corporations to fully participate in the universal food market, it is a requirement that they must keep to high standardization levels, adhere to civil rights movements and official governments controls.
Corporations are bound to observe the safety of consumers as they exercise entrepreneurial undertakings within the free trade marketplaces. In the recent years, the food safety standardization seems to have been strictly shadowed by various legislations.
The whole chain of food production has experienced amendments for instance, corporations seek to observe the manner in which food crops are grown and animals are raised prior to reaching the consumers.
Higher responsibility standards are set for producers by such corporations concerning food safety and quality (Barker & Aydin 1991, p.31). The stipulations are that any food that is to be taken to the market ought to be safe for consumption purposes and must not cause any disease to the consumers.
A handy assessment of the food security regulations discloses that the European Union and the U.S. extremely honor consumers’ food security. In fact, various common wealth nations want corporations to adhere to food security as a prerogative. To monitor consumer food security, numerous regulations have been set by state administrations. These regulations are firmly traced by specific government regulatory bodies.
The main aim of the regulations is to warrant high food safety standards. This entails protecting the basic consumers’ interests and health via closely monitoring the entire process relating to food products sales, processing, transportation, production, food chain and storage.
The vibrant and preemptive principles concerning food safety consist of the consumers’ protection policies which embrace integrated and wide-ranging approaches (Regulation, 2002).
Corporations in the recent years appear to integrate technical discussions in food productions. The foundation with respect to human health right is considered the utmost reasonable standard given that it must be organized in a sustainable, systematic and operational modus.
According to Hise (n.d., p.15) assertions, corporations which provide health services that are derived from international standards tend to implement integrated, operative and realistic health systems.
Health providing corporations embrace health related determinants and medical cares which are entirely responsive to both international and local precedence that are deemed wholly accessible. The corporations institute standards which replicate service quality being offered (Hise n.d., p.19).
Health service quality standards are reliant on medicine interventions and public health insights. Kinney and Clark (2004, p.292) assert that each and every individual has a right to standard and available healthcare services. Often, standardized health services tend to warrant the population with an operative healthcare system.
Corporation which offer standard health services mostly prosper as a result of the loyalty and acceptability they attain from the global marketplaces. E-commerce has greatly contributed to the amplification of reliable corporations’ clients’ base given that consumers usually seek better health providers advice and information from friends.
Any corporation that does not set high service standards is bound to fail from negative publicity ensuing from the provision of grave and prevalent human rights health problems.
Basically, patients are believed to have the rights to high standard and accessible health services. The strengthening as well as the development of health systems is perceived to be very essential in achieving poverty reduction, economic affluence and securing sustainable development from a vigorous population.
In most global nations, the consumers’ rights with respect to the delivery of high healthcare standards are constitutionally enshrined (Freedman, 2005, p.20). In states where consumers’ rights health standards are not incorporated in the constitution, the health service standards are instituted by various enforced human rights accords.
Systems which reflect high health service standards appear to be apprehensive of the consumers’ rights. Such corporations are attributable to certain features including the citizens’ rights to operational perspectives which ensure that producers meet the utmost attainable service standards.
The attributes further entails the consumers right to view the corporations health in order to strengthen the health systems as the international health standards require. These standards are particularly emulated by the employees found within the corporations that offer health services.
Another important attribute of the health care service provision standards appertains to the welfare of the individuals, populations and the communities. These standards are specifically revealed when technical health matters incorporate experts (Kinney & Clark, 2004, p.301).
Quality assurance standards (QA)
DNA Advisory Board (DAB) QA
Basically, this is a QA panel that was instituted under the DNA Identification Act to review and improve quality assurance acclaimed principles. The DNA Advisory Board realizes its undertakings through commending QA principles to innumerable administrations including QA principles for Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories.
These standards categorically define the quality assurance obligations that should be followed to warrant the reliability and quality of data produced by laboratories which utilize the combined DNA index system or perform forensic DNA tests.
The standards are thus particularly apprehensive of safety. They are general and this always results into varying interpretations (Nfstc, n.d, p.1). In fact, the program requires that all laboratories should inaugurate and similarly advance documented quality structures.
According to DNA Advisory Board (1998) stipulations, any adopted system must be suitable during the testing procedures. The generalization of these standards implies that they need expert staffs to perform specific operations.
Furthermore, the standards take into consideration vendor laboratories which execute scientific DNA tests according to Standard Seventeen (17). However, the participations of laboratories are not precluded either in collaboration with the others or by themselves on research and development relating to practices and actions that hitherto have not been corroborated (FBI, 2009).
ESG European QA Standards
The E4 set which consist of of the European symbolic groups namely universities, scholars, new higher education institutes and QA organizations merged to improve the European Standards and Guidelines for QA (ESG).
The guidelines and standards were designed for application to the European quality assurance agencies as well as to each and every higher education institution irrespective of its size, function, structure and national systems where they are situated. ESG was purposely designed to offer quality assurance by improving transparency and promoting mutual trust whereas respecting subject areas and national contexts diversities.
It is not avowed that detailed procedures should be incorporated in the report recommendations chapter given that agency and institutional procedures emerged to be imperative components of their autonomies. The agencies and institutions are bound to cooperate within their individualized contexts when deciding on the technical significances of approving these standards (Bernhard, 2011, p.91).
The ESG report encloses principles, recommendations and procedures that distinguish the state’s higher education classification preeminence, the worth of the supporting organizations and formal independences within such state systems as well as the definite necessities for the diverse learning subjects. The guidelines and standards are indebted to the knowledge acquired thru ENQA, TEEP coordinated pilot project.
Consistent with the institutional autonomy principles, quality assurance has a basic responsibility in higher educational systems which lie with every institution. It offers the foundation for actual responsibility of the educational systems within the state quality context (Bernhard, 2011, p.91).
Therefore, with regard to procedures and principles, a proper equilibrium has been tailed amid the responsibilities being assumed by the peripheral QA processes and improvement as well as the conception of the interior quality philosophies.
Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries Quality Standard (ISO/TS 29001)
This is visualized as a common and inimitable source of global sectorial quality management standard (Gasiorowski, 2003).
This quality assurance standard addresses the well-being and protection of both the personnel as well as the public. ISO/TS 29001 seeks after ensuring that surrounding environment is well protected and profit streams for both the corporations and national economies are well maintained (Global Group, 2008).
Business Excellence Models (BEM)
BEM is perceived as a remarkable administrative exercise which leads to the realization of outcomes that are anchored on a set of primary principles or conceptions. This practice has generated models stipulating how global organizations ought to operate.
Indeed, business excellence models have developed and continuously advance via studies conducted on this practice alongside the values bequeathed to the universally highest performing corporations. Two of the renowned business excellence models are the Malcolm Baldrige Award (MBNQA) and the Australian Business Excellence Framework (ABEF).
Similarly dubbed as Performance Excellence Criteria, the model is alleged to be the utmost effective and prevalent business excellence model set up in the western countries. It was launched by the United States government and it is currently being used by more than twenty five nations who base their frameworks upon it (Nadi, 2001, p.15).
Basically, the Baldrige Criteria comprises of practices which are integrated into six methodological categories and results scope assessment category. The results assessment and approach categories include:
- Workforce focus
- Market and clients focus
- Process management
- Strategic planning
- Business results and,
- Knowledge management, analysis and measurement
The Baldrige Values take account of;
- Systems perspectives
- Management by facts
- Personal and organizational learning
- Focus on the future
- Visionary leadership
- Managing for innovation
- Social responsibility
- Valuing partners and partners
- Focus on creating value and results
- Customer driven excellence
Australian Business Excellence Framework (ABEF)
ABEF is non-prescriptive management and leadership system which describes the critical organizational systems elements on the basis of twelve quality principles and seven categories (Nadi, 2001, p.28).
- Organizational goals can be achieved when there are clear directions that permits organizational focus and alignment
- Organizational directions can be translated into actions through jointly agreed plans
- Organizational action, direction and strategy can only be influenced by understanding the current and future clients values
- When systems and the associated processes are improved, the outcomes will be improved
- Organizational potentiality can be realized via its personnel participation, resourcefulness and enthusiasm
- Innovations and continual improvements ensue from constant learning
- To improve the outcomes, employees need to work on the systems while all work in the systems
- When knowledge, facts and data are effectively used, they might give rise to better decisions
- Performance and predictability are impacted when all procedures and systems display variability
- Organizations can offer community value if the undertaken actions warrant prosperity, safe, clean and fair society
- Organizational capacity to generate and distribute values to all stakeholders determine its sustainability
- For an organization to attain its full potentials, these principles must be constantly role modeled by the senior leadership while creating supportive environment for their adoption
- Business results
- Innovation and leadership
- Services, products and processes
- Market and customer focus
- Knowledge and data information
- Planning and strategic processes
In its broad sense, quality assurance standard relates to any set of action that has been selected, assumed and implemented so as to avert the occurrence of any quality problem. Business enterprises usually implement quality assurance standards to demonstrate their commitments towards the delivery of quality services and products to the consumers.
Practically, this implies devising systems that could be used to carry out responsibilities that might directly impact on the quality of products. QA documents how corporations intend to meet the clients’ requirements in a reliable and systematic manner. However, QA does not warrant quality product.
Conversely, most nations have developed their specific business excellence models which they use as frameworks in assessing and recognizing organizations performance via the award programmes.
As outlines that corporations and businesses might adopt, BEM offers assistance to businesses to tailor their activities and beliefs in a well-structured and logical modus which brings about enhanced performance. The ABEF and Baldrige Criteria models seem to be wide-ranging given that they revolve around all administrative scopes and parts, particularly aspects which foster organizational performance.
Barker, A. T. & Aydin, N. 1991, “Implications of Standardization in Global Markets”. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, vol.3 no.4, pp.15-34.
Bernhard, A. 2011, Quality assurance in an international higher education area: A case study approach and comparative analysis, Springer, Florence.
DNA Advisory Board1998, Quality assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories. Web.
Freedman, L 2005, “Achieving the MDGs: Health systems as core social institutions”, Development, vol. 48 no.1, pp. 19-24.
Gasiorowski, E. 2003, Quality management system for the oil and natural gas industry. Web.
Global Group, 2008, ISO/TS 29001: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries specific quality management systems. Web.
Hise, R. “Are US companies employing standardization or adaptation strategies in their international markets?” Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies. Web.
Kinney, E. & Clark, B. 2004, “Provisions for health and health care in the constitutions of the countries of the world”, Cornell International Law Journal, 37, pp. 285–355.
Nadi, F 2001, The quest for global competitiveness through national quality and business excellence awards. Web.
Nfstc, Quality assurance standards for forensic DNA testing laboratories (QAS). Web.