Scientific researches involving genetic advancements should be within the required ethical standards and promote human development endeavors. Besides generating important therapies, genetic modifications should also involve the formations of new living organisms that are of critical significance in developing human life (Denning and Priddle 8). In spite of the achievements realized due to genetic testing and progress, a number of concerns have been raised.
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Moreover, the manner in which ethical principles and moral system affect genetic researches has remained a matter of debate. In this regard, the genetic experimentation should only be applied where it benefits the human development. Even though many people would argue against the genetic development and research, the benefits of the scientific advancement to the human development is immense.
The reasons why genetic experiments and developments should be encouraged within the moral conducts
Essentially, the genetic research and development should be limited to the areas that befit human endeavor. In addition, the extent in which genetic research and development should be undertaken must remain within ethical values and principles that uphold the sanctity of human life. As such, genetic engineering activities that tend to be contrary to the principles of human life and ethical values should be discouraged (Gottweis 91).
Bioethical issues that touch on the topic of human embryonic stem cells as well as cloning have been major concerns around the world thereby sparking fierce debates on such researches in the recent years. As indicated, human cloning and stem cell should be within the precincts of enhancing human developments.
The development of various tissues through cloning has often formed the cornerstone of stem cell researchers’ postulations. Based on this development, stem cells have attributes that ease advancements of genetic production processes. In essence, the developed stem cells have the capability of helping in the restructuring of broken tissues or replacing the dead tissues.
Further, the stem cells are critical in alleviating dangerous diseases from human beings. Researchers in the field prefer the use of adult stem cells as opposed to the application of embryonic cells while developing therapies as well as critical tissues used in the replacement and restructuring of dead and broken tissues respectively. Based on this argument, the elimination of genetic studies pertaining to human embryos is inevitable (Thiroux and Krasemann 207).
In reality, studies that do not lead to the destruction of cells have been encouraged. In this regard, the proponents of genetic engineering involving cell restructuring assert that increased treatments to previously incurable lethal ailments have been achieved due to genetic reformation. Besides, with the application of contemporary genetic therapeutic technologies, diseases that cause side-disparaging effects to the cells have been eliminated.
Conversely, embryonic stem cells researches involving the utilization of human embryos are considered the most unethical. The reason is that embryonic stem cells often hinder the efficient operations of the body cells. Further, donors of the embryos used in the stem cells researches often suffer gradual tissue impairments.
Available data contend that studies involving embryonic stem cells and genetic experiments as well as developments lead to the destruction of embryos and towering frequencies of embryo deaths (Thiroux and Krasemann 207).
Human cloning is one of the genetic researches and development that should be discouraged. However, cloning involving other organisms particularly for the development and manufacture of various products helpful to human development should be encouraged. Cloning is asexual processes in which new genetic characteristics of living organisms are developed.
For example, blending the somatic cells and oocytes of males and females organisms correspondingly gives rise to an individual with unique attributes. In other words, the electro-fusion of the gametes and the body cells generates differing and superior individual characteristics critical in improving productivity (Thiroux and Krasemann 207). Therefore, cloning of plants and animals that result in improved outcome for the betterment of human life should be encouraged.
On the contrary, scientific researches aimed at increasing agricultural productivity and health have continuously received acceptance by the majority. In such researches, the nuclear transfer exclusively generates the embryos entirely used in studies. Moreover, the cloning process does not require the female uterus for the embryos to develop.
Essentially, embryos developed through cloning for research purposes have increased benefits. One of the areas where cloning for research purposes has achieved much is in the field of medicine. In fact, most current therapies used to treat diseases that require tissue replacement or reconstruction are based on genetic researches and development (Gottweis 98).
Genetic experimentations on humans including cloning have been highly discouraged. In other words, majority consider interfering with normal existence of human life in any way including scientific research and development as unethical. As such, modifying human characteristic through genetic experimentation has attracted immense disapproval.
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Therefore, human cloning for reproductive purposes should not be allowed. As indicated, expected offspring will face moral problems particularly their acceptance in the society (Denning and Priddle 8). Besides moral considerations, the evidence that human cloning will be successful is limited.
In addition, cloned organisms have numerous defects that have greater effects on the growth and development of the organism. In most cases, the defects lead to death of the organism. In fact, most malfunctions in plants and animals are blamed on mutations resulting from duplications of the organism’ DNA.
Most of the current crops and livestock result from genetically engineered activities. Such genetically modified animals and crops have various defects ranging from poor developments of major organs to lack of adaptation to the current environmental conditions. Due to such difficulties and challenges observed in animals and organisms, human gene modification is highly discouraged (Denning and Priddle 8).
In fact, many people disapprove cloning or genetic researches that involve the development of human beings through scientific processes. From the perspective of genetic engineering, the body cells are considered gametes since the cells are fused and then allowed to multiply through cell division.
The process is similar to the production of new distinct organism as observed in asexual reproduction (Gottweis 97). Producing humans in the lab is considered immoral by almost all societies. What makes such scientific actions immoral is the fear of creating genetic engineered offspring, which can be used as assets. Moreover, the offspring are not given equal status to the rest of the people in the society.
Ethical view asserts that all individuals including the embryos have a right to life and any processes that interfere with existence of the embryo are immoral. Moreover, the viewpoint of prolife is that the right to life begins at conception (Denning and Priddle 8). The meaning is that the embryos should be given equal status to that of an adult. Considering the two viewpoints, the morality of using the embryos for research purposes is questioned. The prolife assertions are also considered when birth control measures are undertaken.
Besides, the destruction of embryos means the end of life. In other words, human existence is under threat when the embryos are used for genetic researches and development (Gottweis 97).
However, the opposing views argue that the embryos cannot be identified before the lapse of fourteen days. As such, stem cells researches can be conducted using the embryos at that stage. Even though the stem cells researches can be undertaken using the embryos at that stage, the developed organisms have major defects that decrease the chance of survival.
Genetic experimentation and development are costly undertakings. Therefore, the results of the experiments are not always perfect. Moreover, clinical side effects resulting from such experiments prevent the practicality of the outcome on human beings (Denning and Priddle 8).
The high costs involved in the process and the side effects make the treatments resulting from genetic experimentation inaccessible to many people. Moreover, genetic experimentations including cloning require living body cells and the retrieval of such cells normally require extreme care. Besides, the cloned body cells present numerous health concerns to the patients
Ethical considerations are critical in all activities involving genetic modifications. Besides, all the genetic modifications and activities that result in enhancing human life should be encouraged. In other words, genetic modifications that result in increased productivity as well as advancing therapies should be encouraged. Essentially, the pursuit of genetic development and experimentation should be within the required ethical standards and promote human development endeavors.
Denning, Chris and Helen Priddle. “New frontiers in gene targeting and cloning: success, application and challenges in domestic animals and human embryonic stem cells.” Reproduction, 12.6 (2003): 1-11. Print.
Gottweis, Herbert. Governing molecules: the discursive politics of genetic engineering in Europe and the United States. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2008. Print.
Thiroux, Jacques and Keith Krasemann. Ethics: Theory and Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.