Main components of the Government set out by Georgia’s constitution
From the assessment of Georgia state constitution, there are two main components of the government besides the local government. The two branches are the executive branch, which is composed of the governor, the plural executive, and constitutional boards and commissions, and the judicial branch composed of trial courts, appellate courts, and district attorneys and juries. Local government of Georgia includes counties, cities, and districts. Normally, the governor is the most influential political figure in Georgia.
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This political influence is grounded on the official authority established by the state’s constitution, and several other bases of power such as the laws, media, public view, and links to political parties, concerned groups, and individual characteristics. The veto power of the governor is contained in the legislative article in the constitution of Georgia. The governor has the power to take action on legislation that has been ratified by the General assembly, which would have some impacts on the law, but excludes modifications in the constitution. Any bill signed by the governor becomes a law on a particular date, typically at the beginning of the financial year.
Georgia constitution demands that voters have to elect other six departmental executives a part from the governor and deputy governor. All together, these eight executives are designated as the ‘elected constitutional officers’. Just like other major states, Georgia selects an attorney general and the state secretary. However, it is one of the few states that allow voters to elect state school superintendent together with individuals who manage the agricultural, insurance, and personnel departments. These persons have authority to regulate the kind of businesses that take place within their jurisdictions, especially agriculture and insurance officers.
How the services of Georgia are authorized by the constitution
Most services provided by Georgia State are authorized by the constitution through the budget. The state is compelled by its constitution to uphold a balanced budget. This implies that the government expenditure cannot be in excess of the available incomes and reserves saved from the preceding years. The kind of programs and services provided by the state depends on the budget. The budget changes with any alteration in revenue collection. Therefore, the success or failure of Georgia’s revenue-collection efforts obviously influence on the amount and value of services provided to the citizens. Therefore, one way by which the services are authorized by the constitution is through the budget since it determines the amount of cash to be spent.
The constitution of Georgia also directly prohibits counties from participating in some activities, especially those that impact on the local school structures or any law court. In addition, it specifies the functions that can be executed by cities or counties. Some of these services are comprised of public transportation, provision of health care services and facilities, public library systems, as well as compliance to the established building codes. In this way, it is evident that the constitution authorizes different services and activities taking place in the counties. This is particularly significant in counties that were initially accredited to offer urban services through the constitutional ratification of 1972. Cities and counties are also allowed, in article 9, to practice planning and zoning, possess personal property, make local arrangements and consolidate with each other (Hill, 1994).
Identification of at least one service from judicial, educational, and social service system
Within the judicial system of the state, there are trial courts and appellate courts that ensure proper provision of legal services to members of the public. Trial courts apply laws to the facts available in a particular case in determining whether an individual committed a criminal or civil offense while appellate courts analyzes the activities of trial courts to define the law questions related to it. Any issue that requires legal process can be solved through Georgia judicial services. For instance, superior court can be described as a court of overall jurisdiction, and hears a wide range of severe cases such as felonies, divorces, several civil disputes, and such like issues. Trial courts have a jurisdiction to hear into cases that are less serious compared to superior courts. Basically, they can be regarded as municipal courts that handle cases concerning traffic laws, local laws, and other transgressions.
Provision of education services has also been mentioned in article 8 of the constitution. Education system in Georgia is diverse and the constitution requires the election of an education superintendent to administer public education. Educational policy making at local level is the obligation of selected school boards, who are charged with responsibility of hiring a superintendent as the main administrator. On the social arena, the constitution of Georgia encourages equal protection of citizens through their court system. This implies that it discourages any form of discrimination based on sex, age, background, race, color, or disability.
Identification of two major funding sources for Georgia and the major programs or services that receive the funding
There are several sources of revenue for Georgia State, which includes different forms of fees, taxes, and lottery funds. The establishment of various sources of funds and their modes of collection is described within the legislative act. The responsibility of collecting and managing of the state revenue is bestowed upon the revenue department, which is a state executive agency. Many revenue decisions in Georgia are made by the governor, who is the budget administrator of the state. The two major sources of funding for Georgia include Georgia tax sources and Nontax revenues. Taxes can be considered as the most observable form of state revenue.
It can be described as an obligatory imbursement made by people, families, or companies to the government. Taxes are charged on earnings, possessions, and most bought commodities. There are several different kinds of tax in Georgia. Examples of these include; individual income tax, company income tax, insurance premium tax, General sales tax, Property tax, inheritance tax, and excise tax. Furthermore, the state collects money from various services they provide, like entrance costs into parks that it conserves. The main nontax revenue source for Georgia State is the lottery. There are numerous games that take place in Georgia making lottery to be a very viable source of funds (Digby, 2005).
Every state must have services or programs to direct their funds to, and Georgia State is no exception. The two major services that use the state funds include Public education system and infrastructure development. Almost all funds used within these sectors are obtained from the state.
Digby, M. (2005). State Revenues in Georgia. Web.
Hill, B (1994). The Georgia state constitution: A reference guide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.