In most developing nations, as indicated by cases in sub-Saharan Africa, the management of “fecal–orally transmitted pathogens” is insufficient. Resistance to the antimicrobial treatments is encountered in almost all contagious diseases. In particular, it is rife among Escherichia coli, Vibrato cholera, Shield dysenteries, and Salmonella entertains as well as other pathogens in part of Africa (Koneke, Abode in, Byarugaba, Ojo, Opintan, p. 1).
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The financially challenged individuals are, mostly, the victims of these diseases. In addition, they are the bearer of the extended sickness as well as the aggravated mortality rate that are a resultant of these diseases. These infections are further worsened by drug resistance. As a solution, enhancement in administration of antimicrobial drugs would greatly assist in the reduction of drug resistance. In the sub-Saharan regions, however, the strategy has not been adequately implemented due to lack of sufficient medical information and financial capacity.
The management of antimicrobial drug resistance requires that the patients have access to quality and continued antimicrobial agents and diagnostic services. Moreover, enhancement in control of contagious infections is required besides structural improvement in the prevention and control of these diseases. Furthermore, promotion of rational utilization of the antimicrobial drugs is vital if the resistance has to be reduced and contained.
In most developing nations, the undesirable impacts of communicable diseases are common and substantial. Moreover, the contracting of these contagious diseases is likely to happen among the poor people. Unfortunately, these people have little access, if any, to medical treatment. In the past, most of the parasitic and bacterial illnesses could be managed with the affordable low cost antimicrobial drugs. Nevertheless, with the emergence of the resistant strains of pathogens recently, treatment has been characterized by high cost of drugs, as is the case in newly researched drugs, and less cases of successful treatment.
The problem of drug resistance is increasing and has become widespread in infections that are common in Africa. These infections include diseases like tuberculosis (TB), malaria, Human Immune Virus opportunistic infections, diarrheal and respiratory diseases. One case in point is the Africa rise in malaria infections, basically, due to drug resistant resulting to increased mortality rate. Worse still is the fact that the cost of quality anti-malarial treatment supersedes the health budgetary capability and allocations for the malaria-endemic countries. Equally, a recent case in rural South Africa of a widely drug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak demonstrated that resistant pathogens pose a costly and enormous threat to both the HIV-positive individuals and the HIV-negative persons.
Most of the available dissertation on drug resistance and communicable diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa has only focused on the critical problems related to tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS. However, in the same way, drug resistance compromises the containment of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), severe respiratory complications, as well as diseases that are transmitted through the fecal-oral route like dysentery, typhoid, cholera, including other diarrheal infections; these fecal-orally spread diseases are the focus of this discussion. Lastly, young children are particularly liable to get resistant enteric diseases that result in less apparent, but lasting undesirable effects.
Koneke, N. Iruka; Abode in, A. Oladiipo; Byarugaba, K. Denis; Ojo, K. Kayode; and Opintan, A. Japheth. Growing Problem of Multidrug-Resistant Enteric Pathogens in Africa. Vol. 13, Number 11. Web.