Imagine you would like to undertake gender comparisons in leadership ability. Identify and describe a number of biases that might influence your research.
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During the present decades, women have proved themselves and have gallantly taken up the challenges given by society, by rising high up the hierarchical ladder and competing with their male counterparts. As per our traditional critics, men are still considered as born leaders and are looked up for possessing many such unique traits which apparently women are lacking. Even after putting so much effort to be at par with the men, women have to face severe competition while they put an effort to prove themselves as efficient leaders.
In this context distinguished writer, Sandra Bem has given an excellent instance. To point out the ongoing discrimination that females generally suffer in professional spheres, Bem has made an excellent comparison by citing the way women’s power is being stagnated and the manner in which people with short heights are under-estimated in society. Her remarkable quotation needs special attention here, “It isn’t short biology that’s the problem; its short biology being forced to function in a tall-centered social structure” (Bem, 1993).
Finally, with this unique comparison, she has well illustrated the fact that how similarly this same motive plays a crucial role while discriminating between genders and determining the leadership capabilities of both genders.
Thus it is rightly analyzed by Harsh K. Luthar that, “…women are often unfairly evaluated on dimensions such as performance and leadership ability because people hold sex with stereotypical beliefs and attitudes” (Luthar, 1996).
Identify and describe some of the cognitive biases that would encourage people to believe that women are more talkative than men.
Loads of anti-feminists possess some distinctive points to encourage the cognitive biases that women are considered more talkative than men. Many such factors can provide justification for their unique thought process. Few are enlisted below.
One such significant reason which has always been specified by the critics is that women are more prone to gossip and chit-chat. According to them, this is one such way by which they are known to get entertained. As they consider women to have lesser intelligence compared to men, their mode of getting entertained is also through such non-contributing ways.
Many consider that the size of a woman’s brain is smaller than that of a man. Sandra Bem has mentioned in her notable writing that, “Paul Broca argued against higher education for women by claiming that their brains were too small” (Bem, 1993).
Another major point which they often try to stress is that women should not be given much higher education. So this also signifies that being lesser-educated they may tend to get more talkative being unaware of social ethics and etiquettes. They even say that higher education may also hamper the reproductive organs of females. Ben has referred to the same in her book when she specified, “Edward Clarke argued against higher education by claiming that it would divert women’s limited complement of blood from their reproductive organs to their brains – hence their reproductive organs would atrophy and they would be unable to bear children” (Bem, 1993).
Quoting a female psychiatrist, Macrae Fiona suggests that, “inherent differences between the male and female brain explain why women are naturally more talkative than men” (Macrae, 2006).
Thus, to conclude, renowned psychologist, Margaret W. Matlin has rightly mentioned that, “…normal cognitive processes, beginning with the two categories ‘men’ and ‘women’ describe some of the cognitive biases that would encourage people to believe that women are more talkative than men” (Matlin, 2008).
People often hold more positive views about men than women. Discuss this statement.
Society tends to consider men to be superior to women. As per society, men can still be entrusted with a responsible position in any organization. Even today a family needs to be patriarchal as the father should be given the position of being the head of the family. The logic that they provide behind such thought is that men have more strength in mind and they are the major bread earning members of the family. So it goes without saying that they can handle all the financial responsibilities in a much efficient manner as compared to any woman. Side by side, people even depend on men when it comes to a job that may require or demand physical strength as well. According to them, men can be entrusted with such jobs which may require you to put your energy and strength to get the required objective.
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So in any case, society still considers women to be the weaker sex. Women are considered to be good home managers but not worth relying on when given the responsibility to look after a senior role in any organization. Still, it is felt that women need to depend on men but not the other way round.
It is an irony of the society that women don’t get any credibility for their efforts or performances like men to do. Thus, it has been rightly mentioned by Ruth Ostenson, in her famous book that, “There are many cases in which women have assumed a male identity in order to gain acceptance” (Ostenson, 2005).
Sheryl Sandberg has aptly mentioned in this context in her writing that, “…as a man gets more successful, he is better liked by men and women, and as a woman gets more successful, she is less liked by men and women” (Sandberg, 2013).
Bem, S.L. (1993). Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality: From Biological Difference to Institutionalized Androcentrism. Web.
Luthar, H.K. (1996). Gender differences in evaluation of performance and leadership ability: Autocratic vs. democratic managers. Sex Roles – A Journal of Research, 35(5-6), 337-361.
Macrae, F. (2006). Women talk three times as much as men, says study. Web.
Matlin, M.W. (2008). The Psychology of Women. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Ostenson, R.S. (2005). Who’s In and Who’s Out: The Results of Oppression. Web.
Sandberg, S. (2013). ‘Lean In’: Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg explains what’s holding women back. Web.