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Transport Engineering. Traffic Problem in Bolton Town Coursework

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Updated: Jul 28th, 2022

Introduction

Road safety and the intensity of the traffic are among the most burning problems of society nowadays. Thus, for instance, Freeway traffic data is often obtainable in the form of tenancy and amount dimensions collected from single or double loop detectors entrenched in the pavement. In conjunction with effective vehicle length data, these measurements can be changed to macroscopic quantities such as traffic density and speed.

Loop detector data sets are often incomplete or contain bad samples. For instance, from it can be seen that approximately 30% of the possible loop samples. The present paper is based on the so- called “actual observations” with thorough notifications of all the changes and details. To give an approximate imagination on the problem within the world scale, here is the statistics for the geographic areas.

Area Vehicle Miles/ Square Mile Vehicle KM/ KM2 Population/ Square Mile Population/ KM2
United States 58,221 36,149 2,828 1,091
Canada 92,053 57,155 6,826 2,634
Europe 116,665 72,436 12,741 4,915
Asia 147,364 91,497 41,956 16,187
Australia 43,086 26,752 3,175 1,225

The solving of this matter mainly depends on the observations and surveys like this one, which usually aim to regard the gathered information, and make certain suggestions on the possible changes in the regulation principles of every separate junction. The present paper is claimed to arrange the statistical data and give the structured information on particular junctions in the Bolton town, and to view the traffic density using the on-move observations. The collected data will be systematized to graphs and tables with further considerations and conclusions. Like any statistical report, it may include some repeating of the outlines, but the main distinction of these is the difference of the data, the outlines are based on.

Report

Average speed

The survey had been held on the three different junctions in Bolton town: out of the town, to/ in the town, within the town – to the university. The ways have been selected with the considerations of the average statistics of traffic, as the suburb ways may be less crowded, and the analysis of the central destination in comparison with the less crowded junctions could give the all-round imagination on the traffic volumes within the town.

As for the speed, the division for the groups is the following:

  • The main part of the vehicles moved with the speed 25-35
  • 12 vehicles with the speed less than 20 km/h
  • 79 vehicles with the speed within the frames 20-25 km/h
  • 40 vehicles with the speed within the frames 25-30 km/h
  • 64 vehicles with the speed within the frames 30-35 km/h
  • 5 vehicles with the speed more than 35 km/h
  • Thus the average speed is approximately 27.35 km/h

The offered statistics represent that fact, that most drivers prefer driving the safe speed without risk fro their own health, and the health of the surrounding people. It is necessary to mention, that according to the 2006 Annual Assessment of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatalities and Injuries shows that 17,602 people were killed in the United States in traffic crashes because of violating the speed regime on the road – essentially unchanged from the 17,590 overdriving related fatalities in 2005. Side-impact passenger vehicle crashes are a serious – and frequently severe – safety problem on the nation’s roadways. Side impact crashes account for 28 percent of all fatalities, the majority of which involve a brain injury. It is estimated that the new requirements will save over 300 lives and prevent nearly 400 serious injuries per year.

The calculation of the deviation was held according to the following formulas:

Formula

Thus, the standard deviation value is 3.07 km/h. In comparison with the related researches, this one offers comparatively the same level of precision in the researches, as the used data had been derived by self collection, and may be regarded as complete and sufficient for the research in order to give the full image on the issue.

Percentage of speed

Reporting

The survey was held on 10.10.2007 simultaneously in the three destinations in the time 14:00 – 15:00, and on-move survey.

The actual research on the matter of the traffic density in Bolton town included the division of the time runs, the destination, and the classification of the vehicles.

Out of town destination

Out of town destination
pedal cyclists motorcycles Cars and taxies Buses Light goods vehicles OGV1 OGV2
left 2 4 57 0 11 3 1
right 1 4 116 2 16 5 0
straight 0 9 385 12 20 5 1
total 3 17 558 14 47 13 2

To the town destination

To the town destination
pedal cyclists motorcycles Cars and taxies Buses Light goods vehicles OGV1 OGV2
left 0 3 215 1 13 4 1
right 0 1 166 4 20 7 0
straight 0 2 302 15 44 16 4
total 0 6 683 20 77 27 5

To the university destination

To the university destination
pedal cyclists motorcycles Cars and taxies Buses Light goods vehicles OGV1 OGV2
left 0 0 225 2 21 10 2
right 0 0 119 5 11 1 0
straight 1 0 196 6 23 22 0
total 1 0 540 13 55 33 2

Moving observer method

Observation was held 10.10.2007 on the Deane road from University way to Hilton lane in the Bolton town. As the survey longed for 48 minutes (0.7 hour approx), the volume of the vehicles is 851 per hour out of the town, and 873 vehicles per hour to/ in the town.

According to the survey, the period, during which it was held, can not be considered as the optimum cycle time, as the traffic is rather intensive, and it is almost (if not) the rush our.

Control signal time cycle

Signal-controlled junctions are not recommended where the approach speed exceeds 65 mph (104 km/h). Before implementing stand-alone crossings on roads where the speed is above 50 mph, serious deliberation should be provided to speed control means. The ordinary resolution is to measure the speed of approaching vehicles, using extra speed measuring tools, further out from the stop line. These were used to estimate when the vehicle would reach the outer limit of the dilemma zone. The philosophy was that before the driver reached the dilemma area it was safe for the indications to change, but once in the dilemma zone they would be given a fixed addition of the green time to take them well inside the normal uncovering range.

Control signal time cycle

Effective Green period = Actual Green period + Amber Period –Lost time.

Or: g’=g+a-L

Where:

L=L1+L2

Lost time per stage change:

Lstage_n=I-a+n

For the researched junctions, the average time would be 40secs+3secs-5secs=38secs

As the lost time may very (start, taking of the decision, analyzing the situation, giving way to turning vehicles) up to 10 seconds.

Minimum, Maximum
Effective Green period Actual Green period Amber Period Lost time
max 114 120 5 10
min 7 7 2 2

Conclusion

The held research, aiming to present the suitable data for the solution of the traffic problem, and add to the global matter of overcrowding fulfilled its aims. It is necessary to emphasize that the graphs, making the visual addition to the problem, are composed of the authentic facts, as the data was collected during the actual “field” observations, and represent factual information in the statistical context.

References

Castro, Cándida, and Tim Horberry, eds. The Human Factors of Transport Signs. Boca Raton, FL: Routledge, 2004.

Hall, Courtney Robert. History of American Industrial Science. New York: Library Publishers, 1954.

Miller, Daniel, ed. Car Cultures. Oxford, England: Berg, 2001.

Diebold Institute for Public Policy Studies. Transportation Infostructures: The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

Powers, William T. Behavior: The Control of Perception. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1973.

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