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A symbolic category is created historically, legally, physically, and socially to benefit a specific group of people. Native American term discriminated against other nonnative races who settled in America. Interpersonal racism is the convert and overt racial domination exhibited in daily social interactions. Institutional racism is defined as the systemic domination over people of color through social institutions. In America, racial affiliations explain inequality pattern and power relations in diverse societies. Racism is classified into two broad categories, which are institutional and interpersonal. It encourages classification based on basic skin color and mystic boundaries such as Blacks and Asians, West from East, and White from Black. For instance, blackness and whiteness were used regardless of the historical specificity of someone’s race. White became the domineering race over people of color. Whiteness became associated with wealth, life, superiority, and freedom while blackness was linked to poverty, death, inferiority, and bondage.
Types of Dominion that caused Economic Disparities
Institutional racism constitutes different forms of dominion such as symbolic, political, economic, and social powers. Symbolic power categorizes people as either abnormal or normal, inferior people are rarely given job or career advancement opportunities. Political power withholds some basic rights from black people of color by marshaling full state powers to enforce inequality and segregation. Social power discriminates people of color from gaining membership or full inclusion in life associations. Economic power privileges the Whites in regards to job placement, wealth, and property accumulation, and career advancements.
Economic disparities and Policies
Policies formed disadvantages African Americans. It impacts several areas that have significant influence in development of economic disparities. Public schools in African-American neighborhoods are underfunded. Therefore, black children skills acquisition becomes limited and upward mobility is hindered. Discrimination in employment opportunities makes it difficult for people of color to build wealth and escape poverty. Due to social safety net system and sanctioning, a smaller amount of money is likely to be used in black communities and as a result less currency is in circulation in this regions. In the criminal justice systems, people of color are rendered more poor because of higher cash bails and penalties together with other penalties.
A study comparing the upward mobility rate of five ethnic groups, which are Hispanics whites, Asians, Blacks, American Indians and whites showed that economic mobility varied significantly across different races. The Whites have the highest upward income mobility rates followed by the Hispanic Americans, Asians, Indians, and African Americans.
The Whites are considerably favored when selling and buying houses, applying for a job, securing quality education, and when they are seeking medical care.
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McCarthy, N. (2017). Racial Wealth Inequality in the US Is Rampant. Web.