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Anthophyta. Plant Analysis Essay

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Updated: May 14th, 2022

Anthophyta or flowering plants constitute the largest and most diverse known group in the kingdom Plantae. Anthophyta represents close to 90% of all the green plants that exist in the globe. Flowering plants, due to their diversity, are considered vascular seed plants; the fertilization and development of the ovules occur in an enclosed structure called an ovary. The ovary, in most cases, is enclosed in the flowers of these plants. Flowering plants are also known for their ability to produce fruits; angiosperms, because of their fruits, are targeted by animals for food. Flowering plants have to compete for the limited resources that exist in the environment where they grow. The plants also need to survive in the unfavourable environmental factors that exist in the places where they grow. As a result of all of these factors, most angiosperms have structural modifications to their roots, stems, leaves, and flowers that enable them to adapt to such hostile environments (Berg, 2008).

An example of an angiosperm species with specialized structures is Pisum sativum. Pisum sativum, which is commonly known as the garden pea, is one of the angiosperms that have structural modifications to their leaves and roots, which help them to survive. Firstly, the garden pea has modified leaves that help it acquire support from other plants growing around it. The leaf tips of the blades of the garden pea elongate into tendrils that it uses to coil itself around other plants for support (Darwin, 2009). Secondly, the flowers of the garden pea are able to undergo self-pollination by opening the petals and allowing the male grains to get out without external assistance (George, 2009).

The structural modifications to the leaves and flowers of the garden pea plant are very important as they assist the plant to survive and produce its subsequent generations. The modification that happens on the leaves of the pea plant helps it to twine itself around other plants and gain support. With this kind of support, the pea plant is able to expose its leaves above other plants to receive sunlight, which it uses for photosynthesis (Darwin, 2009). The second adaptation that occurs on the flowers is important to the plant as it enables pollination in situations where there are no agents of this important process. The modification of the flowers that results in self-pollination is important for the continuation of the various species of the pea plant (George, 2009).

Classmates’ Posts Replies

Jerome James – Nerium oleander

Oleander also has other structural adaptations apart from the ones mentioned. For instance, the Nerium oleander hides its stomata in deep crypts enclosed by trichomes to protect them from excess transpiration. This adaptation reduces transpiration by reducing the rate of air flow and raising humidity within the crypts.

Islam Elfekky – Calendula officials

Calendula is also adapted to survive in any weather condition, including hot or cold climate. The plant does not require a high amount of sunlight to photosynthesize. In addition, the roots of Calendula contain chemicals used in insect sprays. As a result, Calendula can be used to border gardens and drive away destructive nematodes.

Shawn Walker – Orchids

Epiphytic orchids that do not have any leaves for photosynthesis survive on the food they obtain through a symbiotic relationship with the fungus found on their roots. Other orchids that lack green leaves depend on the chlorophyll that is found in their exposed roots for photosynthesis.

References

Berg, L. R. (2008). Introductory botany: Plants, people, and the environment. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks.

Darwin, C. (2009). Movement and habits of climbing plants. Boston, MA: Mobile Reference.

George, R. A. T. (2009). Vegetable seed production. Wallingford: CABI.

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