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Motivation Theories in Fulfillment of Psychological Needs Essay (Article)

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Updated: May 14th, 2022

In the model, Bloom attempted to formulate the hierarchy of educational goals covering the field of cognitive operations. According to his view, the educational objectives are interrelated with the thinking processes such as “Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation” (Darcy 294). Each level of the hierarchical cognitive model is based on the previous one. Knowledge of memorizing may be regarded as the cognitive basis while evaluation is the highest peak of the cognitive abilities.

In my opinion, Bloom’s model doesn’t have any particular weaknesses because it provides a consistent system of intellectual tasks aimed at the development of higher hierarchical skills – synthesis, evaluation, and critical thinking needed for both investigations of the materials and academic writing. The first two steps of knowledge and comprehension should be followed while reading the articles and papers. It is possible to say that these steps are interrelated because knowledge isn’t possible without comprehension and vice versa. To comprehend the material, it is important to read the papers carefully and note the most important details related to the subject of interest. Then, when the main ideas and concepts are understood, one can easily apply them in writing a review.

Knowledge application doesn’t mean the direct quoting of a text, but it implies paraphrasing and the integration of the learned concepts into the personal view of the subject. Therefore, the application includes analysis and the synthesis of information from the reviewed sources. And finally, one needs to evaluate the complete composition by applying the skills of critical thinking. Evaluation helps to identify the potential errors and make the necessary changes if needed.

According to Darcy, “comprehensive literature reviews involve more than simply a recitation of information gleaned from other sources” (293). A researcher needs to analyze the material provided by other authors. Literature review implies the cognition and systematization of information through which a student attempts to support his/her own ideas. Overall, the review is meant to assist in the verification of an individual’s conclusions. Therefore, it is useful to follow Bloom’s model because it supports the development of critical aptitude needed for the increase of the scholastic work’s authenticity.

Nowadays, there are many different theories explaining the individuals’ motivations in fulfillment of psychological needs. It is possible to say that the theories introduced by David McClelland, Abraham Maslow, and Frederick Herzberg may be regarded as the most comprehensive and well-known.

In his Achievement Motivation Theory, McClelland identified three groups of motives: the achievement motive, the power motive, and the affiliative motive (Dinibutun 135). The power motive is acquired during education or obtaining experience, and it is concerned with a person’s desire to control and influence the actions of others. The achievement motive can become fulfilled only in case the work is successfully completed (the goal is achieved). A success-oriented person formulates complex objectives and wants to receive feedback on his/her work. The achievement motive is common for the majority of people, but its intensity varies depending on the individual characteristics. The level of this motive’s development defines the efficiency of the professional activity to a large extent. And finally, the affiliative motive is related to an individual’s need for participation in multiple social aspects of life, i.e. culture or friendship. This motive leads people to the establishment of sound social relationships in which they expect to be appreciated and supported by peers, colleagues, or individuals of higher social status. The affiliative motive defines active social collaboration.

According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the need can be defined as the physical or psychological scarcity (Neher 90). The needs encourage individuals to act. According to Maslow, the need that stays higher in the hierarchy can be fulfilled only when the lower needs are satisfied. In this way, the need for self-realization, self-esteem, belonging can be fulfilled in case the physical needs and needs for safety are met. In this way, the needs may be regarded as the motivational factors for the formation of human behavior.

Herzberg’s Motivation Theory is focused on two main factors influencing an individual’s performance: hygiene factors (working conditions, the level of supervision, organizational policies, etc.) and motivational factors (success, responsibility, career, etc.) (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd 930). The hygienic factors define the level of work satisfaction in the context of the surrounding conditions. And the second group of factors serves as stimuli for work’s effectiveness and productivity increase.

The main similarity in these theories is the psychological perspective on the motivations for the achievement of desired goals. However, when McClelland and Maslow focused primarily on the internal needs of a person, Herzberg highlighted the factors influencing an individual’s motivation from the outside. Therefore, despite the fact that the theoretical frameworks address the same issues, they are characterized by slightly distinct viewpoints.

It is possible to say that the core idea of these three motivation theories is based on the fact that a person’s success largely depends on the level of his/her motivation for achievements, and the motivation is determined by some psychological needs for self-realization. Each person has different motivations and goals which could be significantly influenced by personal or professional experience, education, social status, and overall living standards. Those who experience difficulties in fulfillment of the basic physical needs (improvement of the external conditions) will likely be less concerned with the realization of higher psychological, esthetical, or cognitive needs. Moreover, the level of satisfaction and the personal motivation for further achievements is affected by the ability to meet the basic interests of the physical character. Thus, it is possible to say that better living conditions and the improvement of living standards stimulate intellectual development and psychological well-being.

Works Cited

Bassett-Jones, Nigel, and Geoffrey Lloyd. “Does Herzberg’s motivation theory have staying power?” The Journal of Management Development 24.10 (2005): 929–943. Print.

Darcy, Haag Granello. “Promoting Cognitive Complexity in Graduate Written Work: Using Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Pedagogical Tool to Improve Literature Reviews.”Counselor Education and Supervision 40.4 (2001): 292-307. ProQuest. Web.

Dinibutun, Revda. “Work Motivation: Theoretical Framework.” GSTF Business Review (GBR) 1.4 (2012): 133-139. ProQuest. Web.

Neher, Andrew. “Maslow’s theory of motivation: A critique.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 31.3 (1991): 89–122. Print.

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