Art is an object that possesses beauty, admired and appreciated by the people, and cannot be found anywhere but in particular places where people can visit. Creating artwork, therefore, requires excellent imagination to give the piece of work the desired aesthetic value. The works of Art in the Ancient culture were of various forms which included architecture, sculpture, and graphic arts (Funch, 1999).
Architecture and sculpture are the oldest forms of art that existed and still exist in the present day. For example, the pyramids that are among the tallest structures in the world.
The primary materials used in architecture were stone, wood, and glass. The sculpture also used stone and wood. Other materials used in sculpture included bronze, marble, silver, copper, wood, and clay. The two techniques involved were carving and casting. Carving means subtracting material to get the desired figure while casting is adding material to obtain the desired figure (Carroll & Eurich, 1992).
Initially, a two-dimensional form of work was used for both architecture and sculpture, but as art advanced through the ages, the two-dimensional form of work was applied. The materials used for both architecture and sculpture included wood and stone. Sculptures also used marble, copper, bronze, silver, and clay.
Sculpture and architecture employed some techniques and processes that were similar to arrive at the final desired object. Carving and casting were mainly used in sculpture which was also practiced in some parts of architectural objects to obtain the shapes required.
The sculptures were painted using the colors of the natural things they represent, while architectural objects were painted according to their use, and the message they portrayed.
Materials were put together in a line to form the shape aimed at both architecture and sculpture. The texture is the roughness or smoothness of a surface as is seen when it is illuminated by light. Different materials have different textures so the artist can make materials of the textures he requires. Most sculptured objects have a smooth finish, while architectural objects are rough.
The value of an Art depends on the materials used to make it, its size, and the image it represents. The beauty and the natural appearance of an object are found in its symmetry(Art Through the Ages, n.d.).
This is used mainly in sculptures of animal or human images to display the true natural appearance. The artists obtained a balance by making symmetrical sculptures and some architectural objects like the pyramids in Egypt. The balance was achieved to give the art natural beauty and safety (Parker, 2003).
The work of art always carries a subject matter. Sculptures of animals by the people of the past appreciated the mysterious way that a supernatural being created the world. Architectural buildings were sacred places and symbolized the presence of God, a sign of adherence to traditional values and way of accompanying death after life.
Works of art such as sculptures represent the real natural environment and thus appreciate nature. The art’s message is to display the purity of nature and for the moral evaluation of the people. Sculptures of Gods and buildings like pyramids represented the presence of a supernatural being and a creator (Horovitz, 1995).
Functions of art are divided into personal, social and physical functions. Individual purposes include religious practices and a sense of control over the entire universe. Social functions dealt with aspects of the life of all the people not personally. It also covered the political functions of the people.
Physical functions were symbolized by architecture, crafts, and industrial design. Artists had a crucial role in ancient cultures. They served the interests of the people, appreciated nature and showed the changing times (Parker, 2003).
Art Through the Ages. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.all-art.org/history12.html
Carroll, H. A., & Eurich, A. C. (1992). Abstract intelligence and art appreciation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 23(3), 214-220.
Funch, B. S. (1999). The psychology of art appreciation. London: Abm Komers.
Horovitz, B. L. (1995). Art Appreciation of Children. The Journal of Educational Research, 31(2), 17-23.
Parker, D. H. (2003, November). The Principles Of Aesthetics. Retrieved from http://www.authorama.com/principles-of-aesthetics-16.html