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It is worth noting that the articular and muscular systems are the two most important parts of the human body due to the fact that they perform the functions of the musculoskeletal system. This system provides the volume of motion of the skeleton relative to the fulcrum. The purpose of this paper is to review this system and describe its peculiarities.
Joints are discontinuous, hollow, and mobile links between bones. Each joint in the human body has basic elements such as articular surfaces, an articular cavity, and so on. In addition, there is also an auxiliary apparatus. In particular, the articular ligaments, discs, meniscus, and synovial membranes are parts of this system (Schuenke, Schulte, & Schumacher, 2015). Joints are quite strong. In their strength, the tension of the ligaments of the joint, muscle traction, pressure, capillary tension between the articular surfaces is important. Due to these aspects, the joints are strong and allow the person to move around in space.
The joint fluid is particularly important in this system since it reduces the friction between surfaces during motion. A similar function is also performed by smooth cartilage covering the joint surfaces (Rizzo, 2010). In general, the main function of all joints in the human body is their participation in the movement. In this connection, they act as dampers since they quench movement inertia and help to stop instantly in the process of moving.
In the human organism, there are almost 600 individual skeletal muscles. The comparison of a number of muscles of the limbs made it possible to reveal a mosaic pattern in the distribution of fibers (Schuenke et al., 2015). It is important that some muscles have an internal arrangement; other tissues are attached to bones, skin, and other muscles in order to provide certain movements. Muscles can move arbitrarily and involuntarily depending on the type of tissue (Swisher, Patton, & Thibodeau, 2014). In general, three categories can be identified in this system, which is cardiac, visceral, and skeletal muscle tissue. Any of these types of tissue consists of water, inorganic substances (such as mineral salts), and organic substances (this includes myoblasts that form muscle cells).
The majority of the muscles are attached to bones through the strong fibrous connective tissue (tendons) (Rizzo, 2010). However, muscles can be both fixed and movable. There are two types of muscle movement such as concentric and eccentric contraction (Swisher et al., 2014). The first type is a shortening of the muscle, while the second is its elongation. In general, the muscular system has three functions including movement, holding the body, and producing heat. However, overall, all muscle groups ensure the correct location of the body, which contributes to the overall health of a person.
Thus, it can be concluded that these two systems perform the musculoskeletal function. The muscles and joints serve as the power unit. The skeletal muscles furnish any movement of the body related to walking, nutrition, and labor processes; therefore, their healthy functioning is the key to the well-being of a person. Almost every movement is a complex activity involving the work of many muscles and joints. The magnitude of an effort and strict sequence of actions is controlled by the central nervous system. Due to the impulses from the nervous system, the muscles of the person are in constant tonus and, together with the work of joints, they provide a stable position of the body.
Rizzo, D. C. (2010). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.
Schuenke, M., Schulte, E., & Schumacher, U. (2015). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.
Swisher, L., Patton, K., & Thibodeau, G. (2014). Study guide for anatomy & physiology (9th ed.). Elsevier.