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B-cells refer to the lymphocytes that contain antigen-indissoluble antibody modicum on the wall, that make up plasma cells, which diffuse antibodies when fully grown. B-cells demarcate in mammals in the bone marrow. Hoffman and Chalasani (2) note that B-cells go by the name B-lymphocytes too.
Antibody is any of a great number of proteins of great modicum mass that are generated by specialized B-lymphocytes after invigoration by an antigen in an immune reaction, that are generated unusually by some cancerous cells (2). An antibody consists of sub-elements that include 2 loaded chains and two light chains (2). As Hoffman and Chalasani (2) remark, every B-cell is set to produce on unique antibody.
For instance, a particular B-cell will produce an antibody that prevents a common cold-causing virus. A particular antibody blends an antigen in the same way a key would blend a lock.
Antibodies belong to a family of big modicums called immunoglobulin (2). Immunoglobulins are proteins composed of polypeptide chains. Every antibody has 2 corresponding and heavy polypeptide chains and two corresponding agile chains (2).
Role of B Cells in Immune Response
There are several types of B-cells. The first type, plasma B-cells or simply plasma, cells are gigantic B-cells that already got exposure to antigen and are already generating and diffusing copious amounts of antibodies (2). These antibodies aid the decimation of bacteria by attaching to them and thus preparing them for easy targeting by phagocytes and arousal of the compliment system (2). Plasma cells also take the title of antibody factories.
The second type of B-cells, memory B-cells, comes from aroused B-cells that are particular to the antigen met during the basic immune reaction (2). They live for quite a long time and can react swiftly after a second exposure to the initial antigen (2). The third type, B-2 cells are the usual B-cells found in most books. B-1 cells, the fourth type, inhabit the lymph nodes in low digits as well as the spleen but are numerous in the peritoneal and pleural cavities (2).
B-cells play their role in the immune system by producing several antibodies, which perform different functions (2). Discussed below, are three types of antibodies and their role in the immune response. The first antibody, IgG, is the chief antibody, which inhabits blood as well as body fluids (2).
Its major function is to hitch on pathogens through a particular antigen receptor to produce antigen-antibody build-ups (2). This antibody also arouses the complement mechanism to various responses between groups of proteins resulting in the generation of a modicum able to destroy bacterial cells (2). IgG provides passive protection to a growing fetus (2).
The second type of antibody, the IgA, partakes in mucosal protection thus preempting invasion of areas susceptible to pathogenic attack (2). It inhabits mucosal regions like the gut, the respiratory canal and the urogenital passage (2). Over and above, IgA exhibits in tears, spit, and breast milk and affords infants with basic protection against pathogens acquired by the mother (2).
IgE, the third type of antibody, plays a significant function in immune responses to particular barnacles and in particular, worms (2). Recent studies show that IgE has a function in the immune system’s fight against cancer cells (2).
Antibodies perform their functions in different ways based on the form of the antigen. Antibodies that attach themselves to toxins secreted by particular bacteria can destroy them directly (2). Other antibodies work by coating bacteria and thus make the bacteria attractive to scavenger cell (2)
Diseases that Affect B-Cells
Diseases that affect B-cells are either non-malignant disorders or malignant disorders. The first nonmalignant B-cell disorder, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP), is a disorder in which motor-reactive antibodies destroy blood platelets before maturity through reticuloendothelial mechanism.
The second disorder, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) manifests through the attendance of pathologic antibodies against a person’s own red blood cell antigens or autoantibodies. As researchers (3) remark, it leads to speedy damaging of red blood cells. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is another nonmalignant B cell disorder, which affects the joints.
Malignant B-cell disorders include Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), which affects lymph nodes (3). The other disorder, Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) attacks the B-lymphocytes and plasma cells. The third disorder, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), mutates normal lymphoid cells.
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Treatment of the Disorders
According to the groups of researchers, Rituximab works well on Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (1). Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work well in controlling Rheumatoid Arthritis (5). Hodgkin Disease responds well to chemotherapy.
Proper knowledge of B-cells and antibodies is crucial in the medical field so that treatment of various diseases associated with B-cells is improved. It is also imperative to carry out more research on diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, which does not have an absolute cure other than therapy. Hodgkin Disease also calls for deeper research to avoid surgery.
- Ahmadi A, Khalili M, Zandieh H, Nahri-Niknafs B. Synthesis and evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of novel ibuprofen analogs. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2015;49:530-536.
- Hoffman WF, Chalasani G. B cells, antibodies, and more. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2016;11(1): 137-154.
- Molica M, Massaro F, Annechini G, et al. Life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia and idhiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura. Successful selective splenic artery embolization. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;8(1): e2016020.