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Behavior modification method is a technique used to change the inappropriate maladaptive behaviors and lifestyle that negatively impacts an individual’s life with more appropriate positive behaviors that builds reputable character and good lifestyle. Cigarette smoking has been documented to cause a remarkable increase in coronary and other cardiovascular diseases among smokers. The approximate number of people succumbing to death from coronary artery disease is 21.5% whereas those dying from stroke and other heart related ailments is approximately 18% (Fiore 121). Cigarette smoking has also lead to an increased incidence of lung, oral and renal cancer. These diseases that arise from smoking can be reduced to a lower risk level or even completely eradicated by deploying smoking cessation behavior modification techniques and sticking by it to the later.
Key modification methods
Lifestyle modification-this is a technique that gradually helps smokers drift away from habits that may compromise their pursuit to quit smoking. These modifications include keeping off from alcohol during the smoking cessation period, avoiding being idle by finding something to do or going for along walk during leisure time and also eating healthy food and plenty of water to help in cleaning up the system.
Seeking counseling and advice from the physician-this is crucial in boosting the patient’s esteem and giving them morale to successfully undertake the program. The physicians may use the five A’s model to facilitate smoking cessation and this includes: Ask-may ask the patient about tobacco use, Advice the patient to quit smoking, Assess patient’s desire to quit, Assist the patient to quit and lastly Arrange for follow up address. This is a very critical process more so during the first weeks where withdrawal tendency and risk of relapse is very high.
Smoking cessation programs-these are programs designed to help smokers quit from smoking by putting measures in place to help them modify their behaviors and habits in the course of achieving the ultimate goal of quitting cigarette smoking.
Nicotine replacement therapy-this is a treatment offered to patients on smoking cessation to cut down their craving and appetite for smoking by administering small doses of nicotine using special smoking cessation products. This therapy when properly administered is very effective in helping the victims abstain from smocking. The benefits that come with the use of these products far much outweigh any associated side effects that emanates from their use. Some of the approved smoking cessation medications including: bupropion SR, nicotine gum, nicotine inhaler, nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch and nicotine nasal spray. We will discuss each of these medications and relate them to their respective behavior modification techniques.
Medications for Smoking Cessation
Bupropion SR –it does not contain nicotine but can be effectively used as a smoking cessation product. Some of the advantages of using bupropion include: it is a non-nicotine tablet which is very easy to use and can also be used together with nicotine replacement therapies. Bupropion has a number of side effects which includes: may result in insomnia or restlessness, persistent headaches, depressed moods, hostility, tremors, nausea or anxiety. Research has documented that about 21%-30% of users in a period of 6 months, have successfully quitted smoking. The cost incurred per day for this medication is estimated at $4.33.
Nicotine gum-is in the form of a chewing gum that administers small doses of nicotine into the blood stream through tissues in the mouth during the chewing process. Some of the advantages of using this product include: can be easily accessed over the counter, it is very efficient in delivering nicotine and does not have a fixed dosage. Its disadvantages include: cannot be administered immediately after meals, its prolonged use may result in painful jaws and requires regular dosing. About 27% of its users have successfully quitted smoking in a period of 6 months. The cost of nicotine gum is $ 10.33 per day for patients who smoke about 15 cigarettes per day.
Nicotine inhaler– is a metered dose inhaler that effectively administers nicotine doses into the patient’s lungs as an inhalant. Some of its advantages include: its mode of application is in a way similar to the act of smoking and it has very few side effects. Its disadvantages include: may result in throat irritation and it also requires frequent dosing. About 23% of its users in 6 months have obtained positive results. Its cost per day is approximated at $9.50 on an average of 12 cigarettes per day.
Nicotine lozenge-occurs in the form tablets containing a dose of nicotine that gets into the system through the mouth. Some of its advantages include: can be obtained over the counter, delivers nicotine more efficiently than the patch and has a flexible dosing. Disadvantages include: can result in dyspepsia and cannot be administered immediately after meals. Its success has been rated at 21% in 6 months. The cost of 2 to 4 mg is approximated at $8.88 per day.
Nicotine patch-is a transdermal patch used to administer nicotine into the patient’s system through the dermal layer of the skin. Its advantages include: can be obtained over the counter, its prolonged overnight use helps to minimize the cravings in the morning hours and has few side effects. Its disadvantages are: may result in skin infections if not properly used, it is not very efficient in administering nicotine and it is also not flexible in terms of dosing. Its success has been rate at 21% in 6 months. The cost of 21mg is $ 4.00 per day.
Nicotine nasal spray-is a powdery product made from grounded tobacco leaves that is snuffed through the nose. Its advantages include: it is the most efficient and fastest method of administering nicotine, it also minimizes craving within a short while and has a flexible dosing. Some of its disadvantages include: it is the most addictive among the products, can result in nose and eye irritation and demands frequent dosing.
Positive Reinforcement Technique
From the above mentioned medications, the modification technique deployed in all the cases is a positive reinforcement technique where the patients are motivated towards acquiring positive habits and high discipline standards that will help then avoid relapsing and the reward for this is evading many cigarette related diseases like lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, stroke and many others and living a healthy life in the long run.
The most effective behavior modification technique among college students is bupropion because it is very effective and affordable, has the shortest treatment duration of 12 weeks, it is easy to use and does not contain nicotine and the most effective technique to use in seminars is nicotine patch because it is the cheapest product and readily available over the counter. It also has very few side effects hence the most appropriate technique to be used in seminars.
Fiore, Michael C. Smoking Cessation:Clinical Practice Guidline. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1996.