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Concept of the Theory of Motivation by Maslow and Herzberg Essay

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Updated: Aug 20th, 2019

The expectancy theory of motivation focuses on the outcomes of a situation as opposed to giving attention to the individual or specific needs. Unlike the presented relationship between internal needs and the resulting efforts by Maslow and Herzberg, the theory presents a separation between efforts due to motivation, performance and the anticipated outcome. According to the theory, in order to motivate a person, there is need to link the efforts, performance and, motivation.

The variables accounting for the theory include, “valence, expectancy and instrumentality” (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). The theory supposes expectancy as the believe that increased efforts is the foundation for amplified performance, but the execution of an event depends on the availability of resources, such as raw materials and time, the skills required to perform an act and the external support such as the supervisory support, availability of performance information or data.

Excellent performance enforces believe of gaining some valued anticipated outcome referred to as instrumentality. The clarity regarding the understanding of the instrumentality affects outcome; the trust accorded the decision makers regarding outcomes and the transparency of the procedures for deciding the outcome affects the outcome.

The importance placed upon expected outcomes is the valence. Some people are motivated by money while others are motivated by the time-offs, thus the differences in valence.

People have different abilities and perceptions to change the levels of efforts for a given situation. The capacity mainly depends on the value placed on anticipated results depending on the strength of the link between efforts and outcomes. According to the theory, the individual motivation depends on the perception one has regarding efforts, performance and outcome.

All the three aspects must work together, for instance if one knows that increase on efforts increases performance, and consequently the performance increases rewards but the reward is not valuable to the individual then the motivation will not exists. People in the same field often compare personal outcomes with those of the colleagues. They therefore alter the level of efforts to achieve a fair play.

Expectancy theory of motivation works on the principal of perception because an employer may provide a work situation that seems to work well among most employees but it does not mean that everyone is satisfied. The aspects presented by the theory do not only apply for a situation where one expects to gain a reward but also for anticipation of a certain outcome.

“The theory of motivation is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes” (Robbins and Judge, 2006). The assumption of equality among people is therefore not applicable.

Lack of motivation at the work place arises because companies lack clarity on the efforts, performance and outcome requirements. Employees lack provision for an immediate clarification to problems that require solutions.

Most people are evaders and do not feel comfortable dealing with problems unless the remuneration is worth the pain or the reward is valuable to the individual or a situation. The company ought to implement the link between efforts, performance and outcome as a problem solving procedure to make the workplace more user-friendly and motivating.

Changes in a production company occur every now and then and people ought to consider them as opportunities for improving their lives or the system. Employees ought to take the changes as a chance to come up with solutions such as rules or regulations that overcome any future challenges. In line with Hansen, (2009) the biggest mistake people make is to have the predisposition of coming up with solutions over a need immediately, other than availing time for better understanding and thus finish off with stronger solutions.

In a close link to the expectancy theory of motivation, the first step to solving the production scenario is for the company to understand that today; employees need freedom of choice and suggestions because they have the sole power over service or goods delivery. The outcome ought to reward by enhancing support to sustainable productive and economic growth.

Considering that, the bonus offers for the employees’ extra efforts towards achieving production goals is not worth the efforts, there need to avail other aspects in support of or equivalent to the product of labour or productivity, intensity and customer satisfaction.

A company need to control the labour productivity. One of the major catalysts for revenue and motivation in a company is group work. The company should invest the human capital in the same setting by letting the total production be equitable to the remuneration generally among the employees.

The aim of the company is to improve performance and reach the targeted production. The procedures ought to enhance the morale for development and promote new modes in the workplace operations. Working as a group boosts the knowledge intensity of the workers and production of developments.

According to the expectancy theory of motivation, the reward is not necessarily the source of the economical growth or group performance. The labour intensity can equate to the product of hours worked by every employee and the share of the employment within the group setting.

This ensures that an employee is responsible of individual performance as well as that of their group. Under this criterion, it is easy to know the laxity of one member, the productivity of a group and that of an individual and, determine who does not fit on a certain group setting.

It is also important to value the Quality of the work by analyzing productivity. In most companies, the relationship between efforts, performance and the outcome in the employees’ working life is a zero rated relationship. The overall production goals ought to be enhancement of the rewarding styles, for instance upgrading the workplace operations.

The shortcoming of the current workforces for instance the conflicts over interests are equally solvable through ensuring improved operations over the relationship between the labour productivity and quality of the work done to the efforts placed to enhance performance.


Hansen, J. (2009). Sales Tips – 5 Rules of Improve For Sales Success. Retrieved from

Griffin, R.W & Moorhead, G. (2009). Organizational Behaviour: Managing People and Organizations. Kentucky: KY. Cengage Learning Publishers

Robbins, S.P & Judge, T.A. (2006). Organizational behaviour. New Jersey: NJ. Prentice Hall Publishers

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