England was involved in a number of wars during the 17th and the 18th centuries. Some of the wars, which England fought with Spain or France, were mainly based on conflicts over borders, power, or colonial territories. Other wars include King William’s war, the war of the league of Augsburg in Europe, the war of Spanish successor, and King George’s War.
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However, in the late 18th century, England was involved in another war with the Mi’kmaq and the Acadian people. This war was a colonial battle over the land of Mi’maki and the Acadian communities. Father Rale’s war and Father Le-loutres war are some of the wars between England and Mi’kmaq cthe ommunity. Hence, this essay examines the causes of wars and raids between the Mi’kmaq and England as well as the treaties signed to stop the war.
The Mi’kmaq community is native to Canada as it has lived in regions like Cape of Peninsula and the maritime province of Canada, a region known as Mi’kmaki. Presently, Mi’kmaki people are found in a new found land region as well as the northeastern Maine. Wars between England and Mi’kmaq started when the Mi’kmaq people learned that the French and the British had claimed part of their ancestral land.
Paul (2006) states that, “the land of the Mi’kmaq was exempted from being seized because the people were Christians” (p. 21). Therefore, the exemption made the Mi’kmaqs and the Acadians to employ military force when resisting British settlements. Mi’kmaqs and the Acadians undertook several military raids in regions such as Dartmouth, Lawrence town, and Halifax. Some of the wars fought by the Acadians and the Mi’kmaq people were Father Rale’s war in1724 and the Acadian expulsion in 1758.
In 1725 Mi’kmaq and England decided to bring the war to an end. Therefore, they signed a peace treaty that was meant to end attacks and wars between England and Mi’kmaq community. The treaty was signed on the 15th of December 1725 in Boston and became the first official treaty between England and Mi’kmaq. Paul (2006) describes the agreement as a friendship treaty.
According to the agreement, England promised to stop interfering with Mi’kmaq hunters while the community of Mi’kmaq promised to stop the attacks. Furthermore, the treaty was signed with the aim of ending wars between England and Mi’kmaq especially attacks on fishermen from both countries.
The treaty was signed after its submission to the delegates of the treaty during the early part of the 16th century. However, the treaty did not have any impact as fighting started shortly after the treaty had been signed, in 1756, Governor Lawrence issued an order to attack and kill hundreds of men and women. The attackers did not only torture the victims, but also did remove parts of their foreheads in some instances.
England and Mi’kmaq engaged in a number of brutal and inhuman attacks and raids in the 18th century. The wars and raids occurred primarily due to fights over colonial territories of British, France, and Mi’kmaq. According to Paul (2006), Canada and England should try to change perceptions of the natives like the Acadians and the Mi’kmaq because their experiences of wars and raids have stuck in their minds for centuries.
The treaties such as the submission and agreement of the delegates treaty in 1720 and the peace treaty of 1725 were meant to end the connection between England and Mi’kmaq. Therefore, it is fundamental that England and Canada look for ways that they can use to address the effects brought about by the wars and raids.
Paul, D. (2006). First Nations History: We Were Not the Savages: Collision Between European and Native American Civilizations. London: Fernwood Publishing Company.