The Mi’kmaq Communities
The Mi’kmaq communities are currently found in different parts of Canada. These aboriginal groups are found in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward. According to historians, the Mi’kmaq language is spoken by different citizens in these regions. The history of the Mi’kmaq communities explains how they were created by Glooscap. They strongly believed that Glooscap created all men.
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According to different studies, such communities developed different habits such as hunting and gathering (Hornborg, 2013). Such communities lived on the east coast of what is currently called North America. However, most of these aboriginal communities did not survive due to different diseases. They also reduced significantly due to endless fights with the Europeans. This fact explains why only a few aboriginal tribes managed to survive. Mi’kmaq is a good example of such communities.
Their Ways of Living
The Mi’kmaq communities have a long history. They lived near seashores where they practiced fishing and hunting. The “widely hunted animal was the moose” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 36). They used the skins of these wild animals for clothing purposes.
The commonly hunted animals “included caribous, porcupines, and bears” (Riendeau, 2007, p. 38). They ate fishes such as lobsters, eels, sturgeons, salmons, and shellfishes. They lived in small structures known as wigwams. These communities reduced significantly due to the unending colonial wars.
The Mi’kmaq embraced a simple way of life. For example, they constructed semi-permanent structures for shelter. This practice was necessary because they migrated from one place to another (Hornborg, 2013). They also engaged in social decision-making processes. Their elders controlled different practices and activities. The Mi’kmaq communities were also spiritual. Every “spiritual leader was given the name puoin” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 65). Such leaders were also responsible for providing quality treatments and health services.
They used natural resources and plants for treatment purposes. They also believed strongly that a guardian spirit fulfilled their health needs. Such guardian spirits were believed to help these points in every healing process. According to these Mi’kmaq communities, all living things such as animals, humans beings, and plants contained a spirit. This knowledge “explains why such groups respected and honored every kind” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 68).
The Mi’kmaq hunted many wild animals for food. Some animals such as passenger pigeons are no longer in existence. Different wild plants provided berries to these communities. They “Mi’kmaq gathered cranberries, strawberries, and blueberries from different plants” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 102). These berries were eaten frequently.
These Mi’kmaq communities embraced new religions such as Christianity especially after the invasion of different Europeans. The Catholic Church “had managed to establish new spiritual relationships with the Mi’kmaq by the early 1600s” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 72). This development explains why there is a strong relationship between these Mi’kmaq communities and the Catholic Church. Recent statistics show that there are over 40,000 Mi’kmaq people in Canada. A quarter of this population is known to speak Mi’kmaq.
Interaction with Nature
The Mi’kmaq communities occupied vast territories. Such territories consisted of river mouths and oceans. The communities moved to “the interior lands during summer” (Riendeau, 2007, p. 72). This practice also protected them from different winds. This discussion shows clearly that these communities were able to predict different weather patterns.
They also interacted with the natural environment in a proper manner. This practice was relevant because nature provided the required support, shelter, and food (Hornborg, 2013). The Mi’kmaq territory was also plentiful. These individuals obtained their food materials from their natural territories.
The Mi’kmaq also monitored different weather patterns. They also identified potential animals and plants that could produce the required food. This interaction with the natural environment made it easier for them to survive. However, they were unable to overcome different challenges such as disease outbreaks and infections (Hornborg, 2013). Such diseases are believed to have claimed most of these Mi’kmaq communities.
The Native Communities of Saudi Arabia: The Badows
Saudi Arabia is one of the most diverse societies in the world. The country has many tribes and races. The country’s population is divided into two unique groups. These groups include the Bedouins and the Arabs. These groups are further subdivided into smaller tribes (Hornborg, 2013). The natives of the country currently occupy the western and central parts of the country. These native communities are presently found in Hijaz and Najd.
Their Ways of Living
One of these native communities of Saudi Arabia is known as the Badows. This native community is also known as the Wild Arabs. According to many researchers, the number of these individuals has decreased significantly within the past decade.
This fact explains why many historians and scholars are unaware of these native communities of Saudi Arabia. Most of these native tribes of Saudi Arabia practiced similar lifestyles (Hornborg, 2013). The surrounding environment dictated the lifestyles, cultural practices, and behaviors of every community.
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Many Saudi Arabian tribes and communities had similar traditional practices. For instance, the Badows embraced a nomadic lifestyle. These nomads moved from one place to another.
Most of the native Saudi Arabian tribes kept different animals such as camels. They also used such animals for transportation. They “also kept other animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 43). They engaged in different works such as art and handcraft. The Badows also produced different materials that supported their trade activities with the Chinese.
These groups migrated from one place to another depending on every weather pattern. They constructed temporary structures and shelters. Many nomadic tribes lived near water sources, especially during the dry season.
Majority of these native communities embraced specific cultural practices. For instance, poetry remained a common practice among these native communities. This practice was directly associated with the teachings of Islam (Hornborg, 2013). These developments made it easier for the Arabic language to become common in the region.
Unlike the Mi’kmaq communities, the majority of these “native Arabians tribes were predominantly Muslims” (The History of Saudi Arabia, 2014, para. 14). The religion emerged in Saudi Arabia thus becoming common among these native communities. In the recent past, many citizens have begun to embrace other religions such as Hinduism and Christianity. These Saudi Arabian communities obtained their agricultural products from different barter traders (The History of Saudi Arabia, 2014).
Interaction with Nature
Majority of the Mi’kmaq communities relied on wild animals and plants for food. This practice was facilitated by their surrounding environments. However, the native tribes of Saudi Arabia relied on their domesticated animals for food. Such foods also supported their traditional ideas and lifestyles.
They consumed different products such as milk, meat, and other dairy products. This practice shows clearly that such natives interacted positively with the natural environment (Hornborg, 2013). They also predicted different weather patterns. They also embraced different agricultural practices depending on every weather change.
The above discussion also highlights a number of similarities and differences between these native groups. For instance, the Mi’kmaq communities mainly relied on wild plants and animals. On the other, the natives of Saudi Arabia relied on domesticated animals such as camels, goats, and cattle. They also predicted different weather patterns in order to survive (Hornborg, 2013).
The Badows followed a nomadic lifestyle. They moved with their animals from one place to another. They constructed temporary structures. However, the invention of different agricultural practices encouraged these tribes to construct semi-permanent structures. This practice was also embraced by different Mi’kmaq communities.
These people traveled from one place to another, depending on the changing weather patterns (The History of Saudi Arabia, 2014). These two groups embraced traditional religious practices. They eventually became Christians. However, the Meadows have always been practicing Islam.
History of Canada and Saudi Arabia
The “recorded history of Canada begins from the arrival of the first Paleo-Indians in North America” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 12). This “event took place thousands of years ago” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 14). History shows that “Canada has been the home to many Aboriginal communities” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 19).
Such communities embraced “unique spiritual practices, social values, hierarchies, and trade networks” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 21). Majority of these aboriginals hunted and gathered in order to get food. They used to move from one to another in order to overcome unendurable weather conditions.
Mi’kmaq communities also embraced different spiritual beliefs. They used to have traditional leaders and healers. However, the majority of these tribes died because of unbearable climatic changes and diseases. This fact explains why “most of these ancient civilizations had disappeared by the time the first colonialists arrived in the continent” (Hornborg, 2013, p. 73). After these Europeans arrived in North America, new treaties were enacted in order to promote the best relationships.
The Seven Years’ War altered the future of North America. This war “forced France to surrender most of its territories to Britain” (Riendeau, 2007, p. 53). This development “led to the formation of a federal dominion that eventually became Canada in 1867” (Riendeau, 2007, p. 65).
These Europeans led to the establishment of new cultural practices in Canada. These newcomers tried to change the cultural practices of different aboriginal tribes. The individuals began to embrace new lifestyles. Such issues have played a significant role in the creation of uniquely Canadian culture.
On the other hand, the historical development of Saudi Arabia is closely related to the lifestyles of these native communities. The history of “this nation dates back to the earliest human civilizations” (House, 2013, p. 87). The Arabian Peninsula is believed to have played a critical role throughout the middle ages.
The Arabian Peninsula is also the birthplace of the Islamic religion. Human beings are believed to have lived in the Peninsular for the past 20,000 years. Most of these natives were gatherers and hunters. They hunted different animals for food. Agriculture also became common in the region. Agriculture also led to the creation of new settlements and trade centers. These developments also produced new practices such as art, architecture, writing, poetry, language, and political systems (The History of Saudi Arabia, 2014).
The newly established Islamic Empire covered different regions such as China, India, and Arabia. New trade activities emerged during the period. The “first Saudi State emerged in the early 18th century” (The History of Saudi Arabia, 2014, para. 11).
Saudi Arabia developed when “Shaikh Muhammad bin Wahhab started to advocate for a better form of Islam” (The History of Saudi Arabia, 2014, para. 16). Many people and religious leaders believed that Muhammad bin Wahhab was a threat to society (House, 2013). Wrangles and wars prevailed in the region throughout the 19th century.
These developments dictated the religious cultural aspects of many Saudi Arabian tribes. This fact explains why the majority of these native communities practiced Islam (House, 2013). They also embraced different agricultural practices for survival. The establishment of different marketplaces made trade a common practice in the Arabian Peninsula.
The modern state of Saudi Arabia was established after King Abdulaziz regained control of different regions such as Hijaz, Madinah, and Makkah (House, 2013). This leader “united most of the warring tribes and eventually established the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932” (House, 2013, p. 64). Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, the king created new foundations that led to modernization. He also managed to construct new roads, communication systems, and facilities.
Unlike Canada, the history of Saudi Arabia is closely associated with Islam. Christianity played a significant role in the establishment of Canada as a nation (Riendeau, 2007). It is also notable that the colonialists reshaped the future of this country. These two nations also experienced various wars and tensions. Such tensions resulted in “strained relationships between different racial groups or territories” (House, 2013, p. 69). Such fights eventually led to the establishment of these sovereign nations.
Hornborg, A. (2013). Mi’kmaq Landscapes: From Animism to Sacred Ecology. New York, NY; Ashgate Publishing.
House, K. (2013). On Saudi Arabia: Its People, Past, Religion, Fault Lines–and Future. London: Random House.
Riendeau, R. (2007). A Brief History of Canada. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.
The History of Saudi Arabia. (2014). Web.