Theoretical orientation of the problem
In everyday usage, ambition and aspiration are synonyms and are used interchangeably. It suggests a personal uplifting. Aspiration means the goal, which has intense personal significance for one’s own self. Occupational aspiration refers to the extent an individual in develops oneself, especially regular work. Occupational aspiration in the formative year of life is supposed to determine success in later life with regard to the job, satisfaction, productivity and personal adjustment.
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Women continue to feel to be a weaker section of society. In spite of the amiable opportunities in various fields, she still seeks a place as an independent and honourable human being. During the last decade industrialization, urbanization, increasing level of education, awareness of rights, the wider influence of media and modernization has changed the status and position of women. The present time skyrocketing prices resulting in economic tension have aroused in women a desire to relieve herself from the financial and economic constraints of her life.
Nowadays the number of educated women, including the number of working women is increasing. At present, women are in a position to compete with men in all walks of life. Today more and more women are coming out in search of employment, and their families also need their income. The financial demands of the families are becoming serious day by day. The skyrocketing cost of living, increasing expenses on the education of children, increasing the cost of housing, properties are the prominent features of today’s life. As a result of this, women, who were mostly known as homemakers, are forced to go for a job. This has also increased their perception of occupation. Many families are still living as joint families, along with the parents and in-laws. This adds to their stress. As a result of this nowadays women want to go for a job to earn income. All these factors are enhancing the occupational aspiration among women.
Formed, Alfeld, Eccles and Barber. (2006) conducted a study to explore why women don’t want a male-dominated job? Mainly to investigate, the sample of young women was taken from a larger longitudinal investigation of approximately young women from a midwestern metropolitan area in Michigan, USA, who were followed from age 18 to age 25. Findings suggested that desire for a flexible job, high time demands of occupation, and low intrinsic value of physical science were the best predictors of women changing their occupational aspirations out of male-dominated fields.
Jung and McCormick (2011) conducted the study to examine developed statistically and confirmed a new model of the occupational decision-related processes of adolescents, in terms of the extent to which they may be motivated about choosing a future occupation. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire that had previously been administered to an Australian adolescent sample was refined and then administered to a sample of 566 Australian Grade 11 students attending a stratified random sample of 16 government high schools in the Sydney metropolitan area. The data has analyzed using structural equation modelling as a result occupational a motivation may be associated with a lack of decidedness about a future occupation, a non-expectancy for occupational success, and a non-valuing of interest/enjoyment in occupations.
Modernization refers to a model of an evolutionary transition from a pre-modern or traditional to modern society. Modernization includes the process of urbanization and industrialization, as well as it is characterized by the spread of education. Modernization can be defined as the integration of economic, political and social cultures and is related to the spreading of broader outlook across broader. It theorizes the development of a global economy in the sense that the world is moving in the direction of more efficient use of resources and the means of production.
Now the status of Indian women has radically changed. The structural and cultural change has provided equality of opportunities to women in education employment and political participation and with the help of these changes exploitation of women, to a great extent, has reduced. To develop it more freedom and orientation has been provided to the women’s organization in order to let them grow. Now in both rural and urban area, there is a remarkable increase in the number of women going out of the four walls of the house to pursue one job or another. In the employment market, they are giving tough competition to men folks.
Nowadays, women are working in every field like teaching, medicine, nursing, law, banking, administrative, media so on and are to be found in almost all cities. Women do not hesitate to even work as bus conductors, police constable, auto-rickshaw drivers and so on. Since 1991, though in a smaller number, women are getting recruited into an armed force, air force and naval force also. Employment has given women economic independence and the feeling of importance. They now feel that they can stand on their own feet and look after their entire family by themselves. This has also boosted their self-pride and self-confidence. Employed women feel that they need not live as parasites on their menfolk.
In the broader framework of modernization, the researcher is intended to examine the impact of it on the aspiration of working women in Punjab. With the impact of modernization, the traditional Indian social values are crumbling, and the position of women is rapidly changing. It was the Indian tradition that the women should remain inside the house under purdah, not to join hands with their male counterparts in public and hardly allowed to join any service either in public or private sectors.
Luk. F.Y.Y. P. and Brennan. M. (2010) conducted the study to examine the Women Teachers in Hong Kong, stories of changing gendered identities and found that in a time of mass schooling in most parts of the world, the discourse of the “woman primary teacher” is often the subject of discourse. Yet most stories of these women teachers emerge from other contexts, with little known about how changing education processes affect the gendered identities of women in other cultural settings. The study explored that women teachers negotiate their gendered identities in Hong Kong, where modernization has already mingled with the indigenous Chinese culture. All are ethnically Chinese, of different ages and at different stages of their personal and professional lives, and all have grown up in Hong Kong. These Chinese women teachers’ identities are seen to be complex, fluid and multi-faceted, continually under construction in their daily lives, with changes experienced in both work and family settings.
However, it is not a denying fact that modernization has brought a change in the attitude and behaviour of both rural and urban women. Social change and social development come about principally through technological advancements. Modernization theory unambiguously contends the influence of educational attainment on subsequent socio-economic status and asserts outcomes on the effect of socio-economic origins over the last fifty years on women in industrialized countries as they have become more educated and participate more actively in the social workforce to become financially independent. Change in social norms about women’s education, careers and specific legislation has resulted in the improvement in women’s educational and labour market value.
Marks. G. N. (2009) conducted a study on Modernization Theory and Changes over time in the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Australia. Modernization theory argues that, as societies industrialize and further develop the influence of social background and other ascribed characteristics on educational and socio-economic outcomes declines, while achievement in the education system becomes more important. The purpose of the research was to investigate propositions derived from modernization theory to apply to Australian society during the second half of the 20th century. These propositions were examined using data from nationally representative surveys conducted from 1965 through 2005. In accordance with modernization theory, it was found that the effects of socio-economic background on education, occupational attainment and earnings have declined. Gender inequalities in education have been reversed, and the gender gap in earnings has declined. The effect of education on occupational aspiration apart from socioeconomic modernization status also play an important role in the determination of occupational aspiration among women.
Socio-economic status is often measured as a combination of education, income, and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. When viewed through a social class lens, privilege, power, and control are emphasized. Furthermore, an examination of socioeconomic status as a gradient or continuous variable reveals inequities in access to and distribution of resources. Socioeconomic status is relevant to all realms of behavioural and social science, including research, practice, education, and advocacy.
The most widely used explanation of the socio-economic status is the position that an individual and family occupies with reference to prevailing average standers of cultural possession and participation in group activities of the community status. Socioeconomic status is a relationship between economic activities and social life.
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Women are more often responsible for raising children and are increasingly likely to raise children alone. This fact is one of the many reasons that the socio-economic standing of women is of great importance to the well-being of future generations. Socio-economic status is a key factor in determining the quality of life of women, with resulting effects on the lives of children and families. Inequities in wealth and quality of life for women are long standing and exist both locally and globally.
Socio-economic status of women varies as per the type of family. As similar views have been supported by Padmni and Krishnamoorthy (1994) in a study mainly highlighting the demographic and socio-economic background and determinates of different family structure in two villages in Coimbatore district. It was found that women in sub nuclear families mostly widow or separated, have much lower levels of socio-economic status when compared to their counterpart in their type of families’ nuclear or joint families, which contradict the idea that improvement in educational level would cause a transmission from the extended to the nuclear family.
American academy of pediatrics (2010) in research exploring the effects of race/Ethnicity gender, socio-economic status on child health, assumed that these variables exert their effects through innate or genetically determined biological mechanism. It was also suggested that these variables have strong impact on social dimension that influence health. Socio-economic status, a complicated construct in its own right, interest and confounds analysis of race/ethnicity and gender and socio economic status as explanatory variables only when data relevant to the underlying social-mechanism has collected and included in the analysis.
Significance of the Problem
From the last many years the status of the women has undergone a major transition in her personal as well as professional life. Gone are the days when women use to confine themselves within the form walls of home only. Today women are competing with men in each and every field. Occupational aspiration among women has increased. There are many factors which are responsible for determining the level of occupational aspiration among women.
Out of the modernization and socio-economic status is the prominent one. Modernization does not limit to mere wearing western cloths only. Modernization lies in leaving orthodox nature and beliefs and adopting more progressive, flexible ideas. Now days women are working in every field like as teaching, medicine, nursing, law, banking, administrative, media so on are to be found in almost all cities.
Modernization is expected to have more profound effect on women because of their paradoxical world with its conflicting norms and values until modern industrialized times, legal and cultural practices, combined with the inertia of longstanding religious and educational traditions had restricted women’s entry and participation in the workforce. Economic dependency upon men and consequently the poor socio-economic status of women has motivated them for enhancing their occupational aspiration.
Although the variable of occupational aspiration has been previously explored by the researcher with other variable like parenting style, social support, interest and personality differential etc but the researchers is curious to know that how far socio economic status and modernization among women are related to their level of occupational aspiration. This has led investigator to undertake the present study.
Statement of the problem
The present study attempts to find out the relation of Occupational Aspiration with Modernization and Socio Economic Status. Therefore the present study is entitled as:
Occupational Aspiration as a Variant of Modernization and Socio Economic Status: A study of Professional Profile of Women in Punjab.
Operational Definitions of the term used
It is a desire of a person to choose particular occupation which he would like to pursue as a means of his livelihood.
Modernization can be defined as the advancement and progression, political, social cultural beliefs. It theorizes the development of a global economy as it leads to the development of the world which moves in the direction where resources and the means of production are individually utilized.
It refers to an individual’s or group’s position within a hierarchical social structure. Socio-economic status depends upon the combination of variables including occupation, income, wealth and place of residence.
- To study the occupational aspiration among women teachers in Punjab.
- To study the modernization among women teachers in Punjab.
- To study the socio-economic status among women teachers in Punjab.
- To find out the difference in the occupational aspiration among rural and urban women teachers in Punjab.
- To find out the difference in the socio-economic status among rural and urban women teachers in Punjab.
- To examine the relationship between occupational aspiration and modernization among women teachers in Punjab.
- To examine the relationship between occupational aspiration and socio economic status among women teachers in Punjab.
- There is no significant difference in occupational aspiration among rural and urban women teachers in Punjab.
- There is no significant difference the modernization among rural urban women teachers in Punjab.
- There is no significant difference the socio economic status of rural and urban women teachers in Punjab.
- There is no significant relationship between occupational aspiration and modernization among women teachers in Punjab.
- There is no significant relationship between occupational aspiration and socio-economic status of women teachers in Punjab.
- The present study was delimited to 200 women only.
- The present study was delimited to District Ropar only.
- Only woman from the teaching profession was considered in the study.
Given the subordinate status of women in most parts of the world, there is a lot of literature which has concentrated on the effort and determination that this group of people do apply in an attempt to fit and survive in all sectors of the modern society. Diverse studies have expounded on the active role played by this under-privileged lot in the society, in relation to occupational aspiration. The focus of this study is based on the modernization and socio-economic status of women in Punjab. The literature review revolves around the main aspects of this dissertation which include; occupational aspiration of women, occupational aspiration with modernization in women, and occupation aspiration in Socio economic status in women in the identified region. According to Bose and Trent (2006, pp. 261). It is obviously clear that the female category continues to feel unappreciated for their role in the modern society, which is dominated by the male. This however comes in a moment when the number of educated and qualified women in the world continues to increase, giving this disadvantaged group enough confidence and determination to compete with men in various segments of modern professional world. Nowadays, unlike in the past, the place and participation of women in activities that promote sustained development in the communities is increasingly appreciated.
As it would be observed from various studies, Punjab’s social fabric is made up of hierarchy based on class, community and caste, among other key social factors and aspects (Jefferey and Jefferey 1997). However, one characteristic of the status of women in the region is the lack of a homogeneous social, economic and cultural structure, which tends to make generalisations relevant to conditions of this group of people impossible. As a matter of fact, there are many social and economical differences to contend with, as far as the status of women in Punjab is concerned. The most common diversities in the situation of women in Punjab state are known to extend health, literacy, education, and gender ratio of employment and political participation and accountability, among other key involvements (Desai 1992). Notwithstanding the existing differences, however, women categories across all parts of the State have strongly come out to prove their ambition and aspiration in developmental activities. Today there is a positive change in the economical, social and political status of the women category in the larger Punjab region. According to Henning and Jardim (2005, pp. 59), many women managers in the region have achieved their leadership positions via progressive advancement of their careers in relevant fields.
Empirical data from various studies on Punjab and other Indian states have constantly showed the determination of women to get involved in professional activities which are traditionally known to have been dominated by males. A recent study conducted to assess the socio economic status of women in the large Punjab State has shown that, women in the region have not only struggled to create an identity and a space for themselves in various sectors of accountability, but have also successfully proved their agility in socio economic matters (Naqvi 2011). It is also quite clear that, the status of the female category has become a leading determinant factor of the behavior of the entire demography whereby the hypothesis is that the more confident and knowledgeable women are, the more likely they are to take full control of their fertility, and minimise mortality rates in their homes. This effect of women position however, is said to occur quite independently of their socio economic situations so that it would be easy for women in difficult circumstances to prove a certain level of mortality and fertility control if they do possess a significant command in household matters and also the freedom to be able to effectively address the outside world (Raju 1997).
Modernity is said to bring new behaviors and attitudes in the society, and this is quite visible in the Punjab society, where the complex variables which have existed between male and women are no longer effective (Beneria 1995). Presently, the big issue of gender inequality which has been defined by the hierarchical system of Punjab is gradually fading away as a result of modernization and industrial revolution. This has enabled women to make a full venture in political, economical, and social matters, just like the males. It is apparent that, rapid modernization in India has completely altered the fabric of the Punjab society in many ways. Modernisation is said to occur in various ways and forms in society; economic, social or political, among other aspects. Over the past few years, women groups from Punjab region have realised a remarkable economical and social success (Sharma 1990). This objective has been achieved through the determination of occupation aspiration and ambition, which is driven by the impact of modernization in the state. Social change, as a result of modernization, has painted new perceptions in the minds of women, in matters regarding various aspects in society such as economics, culture, and politics, to mention but a few. Education has been a major component and driver of modernization and this has over the time led to the breakdown of strict gender variables, something which has seen the leverage of women in the society go up.
Methodes and Procedures
In the planning process of research work, the researcher has to decide about the method that can be used in solving the research problem. Research method is of utmost importance in a research process as this describes the various steps of the plan of action to be adopted in solving a research problem. Method and procedure of a study depends upon type and scope of the problem. In the present study descriptive survey method has been used. The objective of the present study was to know the occupational aspiration of women in relation to parental encouragement. The present chapter mainly deals with the explanation of method of data collection, tools used, sample and sampling procedure and statistical techniques.
Sampling is the process by which a relatively small number of individuals or objects are selected and organized in order to find out something about the entire population. The present study will be primarily conducted to determine the level of occupational aspiration in relation to the modernization and socio economic status of college women. The sample will be collected from 200 women only. Sample will be taken from 100 women of rural area and 100 women belonging from urban area. The sample will be collected from Ropar district of Punjab only. In the present study, random sampling technique will be employed. In this techniques, each and every unit of the population has an equal opportunity of being included in the sample and selection of one individual or unit is in no way depend upon the selection of another individual or unit selected randomly to collect data
Sampling is the process by which a relatively small number of individuals or objects are selected and organized in order to find out something about the entire population from which it is selected. Sampling procedure provides generalization derived from the relatively small proportion of population. In the present study the data was collected from 200 women in rural and urban area. The present study was primarily conducted to determine the level of occupational aspiration in women. It was decided to collect information from the women of Ropar district only.
Ropar district of Punjab was chosen as the sampling area for the present study
For each and every type of research certain instrument are needed to gather new fact and explore new area. The selection of suitable tool is of vital importance for successful research. The present study required to explore the need for occupational aspiration of women in relation to modernization and socio economic status. Following tools will be used in the present study.
- Self constructed questionnaire to assess the Occupational Aspiration among women.
- Modernization by R.S. Singh (Rewa), A.N. Tripathi, Ramji Lal Year (2007)
- Socio- Economic Status Scale by S.D. Kapoor and H.C. Kocher (1970)
The final version of the scale with the items arranged in random order was administered to 200 women. The women age of the sample was 20 yr. Split-half reliability (odd even method) was calculated and after Spearman- Brown’s correction was found to ber =0.78 for the total scale. This demonstrated the high reliability of scale.
Face or Content Validity
This type of validity was demonstrated by 100% agreement among the five judges regarding the relevance of the items content to the attitudes being measured by the scale.
Administration and Instruction
It is a self administering inventory; it can be administered individually or in group. The taste is requested to fill in personal information’s as required in scale form. Formal instruction for taste is printed on the first page. The tester reads the instruction while the taste also follow him sub vocally. After the instructions are over, the taste is asked to register his responses to the various items of the inventory. Though there is no time limit, usually it takes twenty to twenty five minutes to complete the test. Special care is taken to avoid any omission by the teste.
Since the test measures attitude of modernity in four sub-areas, two types of score can be obtain; (a) area wise modernization score and (b) total score indicating overall modernization. Each sub area contains both type of items-positive and negative.
Reliability of Socio-Economic-Status
The coefficient of stability was calculated by Test-Retest method. The correlation of the score of 200 subjects taken at two different times with an interval of one month was found to be.8.
Validity of Socio.Economic. Status
For determine the validity, Pandey’s original scale was applied to 200 women. Correlation of score on this scale with those on Pandey’s scale was found to be.92.The concurrent validity of this scale was also establish by testing identifiable group.
Data was collected from the Ropar district only. Investigator collected the data from working women (teachers) only. The researcher collected the data from 200 women selected randomly. The investigator assured them that this information will be kept confidential. Proper guidelines and instruction were giving to the subject in detail.
To find out the difference between the rural and urban women regarding occupational aspiration and modernization t-test will be used. Similarly to examine the relationship between occupational aspiration and modernization co efficient of correlation will be used. Whereas to explore the relationship between occupational aspiration and socio-economic status, co-efficient of correlation will be applied.
Result, Discussion, Interpretation
The result and discussion is one of the most important part of a research report. Hence this section presents the data as concisely and clearly as possible. It focuses on analysis, interpretation and discussion of results. Analysis the data means studying the organized material in order to discover inherent facts. Data was studied from many angels to explore the new fact. Data once collected is analyzed with the help of statistical techniques which yield certain result. Analysis of data is done in order to determine inherent facts or meanings. Statistical calculation is necessary for interpretation purpose. Interpretation is one of the stating what results have been shown, what are their meaning and significance. In order to examine the occupational aspiration of women in relation to modernization and socio economic status of women. The investigator used psychological test for collecting data.
Result pertaining the difference in Occupational Aspiration among Rural and Urban Women Teacher in Punjab.
One of the objectives of the present study was to find out the difference occupational aspiration among rural and urban women. For this purpose the investigator applied self constructed questionnaire to assess the occupational aspiration among women
Table 3.1. Showing Mean, SD and t value of the Occupational Aspiration among Rural and Urban Teacher Women in Punjab.
|Rural women||100||91.96||13.110||4.99||Significant |
at 0.05 level
It is evident from the table 3.1 that the mean score for the occupation aspiration among rural and urban women came out to be 91.96.whereas the mean score for the occupational aspiration among urban women 100.65.Apart from this the SD value came out to be 13.110 and 11.427 respectively. The calculated t-value i.e. 4.996
Which are in comparison of table value i.e.1.972 (at 0.05 level of significance) is more. Therefore the hypothesis that there exists significant difference in the occupational aspiration among women of rural and urban area.
The other objective of the study was to find out the difference of Modernization between Rural and Urban Teacher Women in Punjab
Table 3.2. Showing Mean, SD and t value of in Modernization among Rural and Urban Teacher Women in Punjab.
It is evident from the table 3.2 that the mean score for the modernization among rural and urban women came out to be 145.29.whereas the mean score for the occupational aspiration among urban women149.41.Apart from this the SD value came out to be 14.393 and 12.223 respectively. The calculated t-value i.e. 2.187
Which is in comparison of table value i.e. 1.972 (at 0.05 level of significance) is more.Therfor the hypothesis that there exists significant difference in the modernization among women of rural and urban area.
One of the objectives of the present study was to find out the difference in Socio- Economic Status among Rural and Urban Women Teacher in Punjab
Table3.3 Showing Mean, SD and t-value of the Socio-Economic Status among Rural and Urban Women.
It is evident from the table 3.3 that the mean score for the Occupation Aspiration in socio-Economic among Rural and Urban Women came out to be 65.27.whereas the mean score for the occupational aspiration among urban women 64.2.Apart from this the SD value came out to be 54.077 and 27.373 respectively. The calculated t-value i.e. 1.185
Which is in comparison of table value i.e. 1.972 (at 0.05 level of significance) is less.Therfor the hypothesis that there exists insignificant difference in the socio economic status among women of rural and urban area.
One of the objectives of the present study was to find out the relationship between Occupational Aspirations and Socio- Economic Status of Teacher Women in Punjab
Table 3.4. Showing relationship between Occupational Aspiration and Socio Economic status among Rural and Urban Teacher Women.
|Occupational Aspiration and Socio-Economic status among Rural and Urban Women||100 |
It is evident from the table 3.4 that the relationship between Occupational Aspiration and Socio-Economic status among Rural and Urban Women. The table value of r at degree of freedom 198 is 0.138 and 0.181 at 0.05 and 0.01 level insignificant respectively. The calculated co-relation is 0.076 values i.e. 1.98 is less. Therefore the hypothesis that there exists no significant relationship between occupational aspirations and socio- economic status among rural and urban women is accepted. There is no relationship between occupational aspiration and socio-economic status among rural and urban women.
One of the objectives of the present study was to find out the relationship between Occupational Aspirations and Modernization among Rural and Urban Teacher Women
Table 3.5. Showing relationship between Occupational Aspiration and Modernization among Rural and Urban Teacher Women.
|Occupational Aspiration and modernization among Rural and Urban Women||100 |
It is evident from the table 3.5 that the relationship between Occupational Aspiration and modernization among rural and urban women. The table value of r at degree of freedom 198 is 0.138 and 0.181 at 0.05 and 0.01 level significant respectively. The calculated co-relation is 0.263 values i.e. 1.98 is more. Therefore the hypothesis that there exists significant relationship between occupational aspirations and modernization among rural and urban women is rejected. There is relationship between occupational aspiration and modernization among rural and urban women.
Conclusions are as essential as investigation. They provide a finishing touch and review to the whole of the critical work. In the present study the investigator has tried to find out the interest and level of occupational aspiration in relation to socio-economic status and modernization among rural and urban women in district Ropar in Punjab. The present part a recapitulation of the study and conclusion drawn on the basis of this study.
- There exists significant difference in the Occupational Aspiration among rural and urban women.
- There exists significant difference in Occupational Aspiration and modernization among rural and urban women is accepted.
- There exists no significant difference in Occupational Aspiration and socio-economic status among rural and urban women. It revel that rural and urban women having high parental encouragement does not influence their occupational aspiration.
- There exists no significant relationship between Occupational Aspiration and socio-economic status among rural and urban women is accepted.
- There exists significant relationship between Occupational Aspiration and modernization among rural and urban women. The null hypothesis is rejected.
Research has always some limitations. This is especially true in the case of research studies, which involve human behavior because at the time of data collection, any individual can try to conceal his negative aspect. It is due to this, the data affect the reliability of research. The present study has also some limitations. Such limitations of the study reduce the reliability and validity of the study. The researcher considered the following limitations in the present study.
- The sample was small in size.
- The sample was taken from the respondents of Ropar district only.
- As random sampling was applied in the present study so the true representation of the population cannot be ensured.
- Only 200 women were taken as sample, which not represent the whole population.
Suggestions for Further Research
Research is never ending process, every investigator after completion of his research inevitable becomes aware of area in which further research is needed and naturally feels motiveless to indicate area, which may be taken up for research by other investigators. The researcher by virtue of his experience in the field of study humbly offers the following suggestion for further research that could be undertaken by perspective researchers.
- The sample size can be enlarged to reach more concrete results.
- Research may be conducted involving other important variables.
- The comparative study of occupational aspiration of women in relation to socio-economic and modernization in rural and urban areas can be undertaken.
- The present study is confined only to Ropar districts. It is suggested that study may be conducted at national level.
- As in the present study only teachers were included so comparative study can also be conducted on women.
The investigator wish to offer the following recommendation on the basis of the finding of the present research work.
- The present study conducted to find out the Occupational Aspiration in relation to socio-economic status and modernization among women of rural and urban area in Ropar district of Punjab reveals that education and more exposure to the outer world makes women more aware and developed more confidence.
- Good education greater, exposure to the world of leads to greater confidence and greater financial independence and thus a better life for women.
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