This interview was conducted with two children at the age of 4 and 9 years old. The participants of the interview were the members of one family. The aim of the project was to compare the age peculiarities of the children and differences in their development.
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During the interview, the children were asked to perform several tasks. They were proposed to describe their friends. Then they were asked to draw the members of their family.
As it has been mentioned before both children are the members of one family and they are bringing up by the same parents. Nevertheless, judging from the speech patterns used by the children, the difference in their cognitive development is obvious. Being interviewed Hanna uses the simple phrases, with reduced vocabulary. At the same time Michael, uses more complicated phrases and even set expressions.
It may be explained by the fact that Hanna is at the stage of the preoperational development. At this stage language skills of a child are not developed. Children just learn to use language. The main activity, which is typical for a child of this age, is a game. Moreover, this period of development is characterized by egocentrism and a childs inability to evaluate things from a different point of view. It is clearly observed in Hannas speech that she does not realize the interconnection of her relations with Sophia. Hanna does not understand that she is the same friend for Sophia as Sophia is for her. It is a typical example of the egocentrism that is typical for this age.
Michael is at the concrete operational stage. There are logical arguments in his statements. For instance, he realizes the dependence between his friendship with Peter and the fact that they study at the same school.
The drawing activity also reveals the differences in the cognitive and physical development of the children. While watching the motions of children during the task fulfilment it was seen that Hannas motor skills were not highly developed. She kept a pencil in her hand in a wrong way and there were obvious technical difficulties for her in this task. Michaels motions, on the contrary, were technically correct. Moreover, during the fulfilment of the task there was a difference in a childrens concentration. For Hanna it was difficult to remain on a place. She was constantly getting distracted from her task. At the same time, Michael stayed focused until the end of the task. This fact suggests an obvious difference in the physical development of the children.
In general, it is possible to conclude that at the preoperational and concrete operational stages there may be observed the obvious differences in a development of a child.
Hanna (4 years old)
Interviewer: Hanna, please tell me do you have a friend?
Hanna: I have a friend. Her name is Sophia. We often play together.
Interviewer: Hanna, do you like your friend?
Hanna: Yes, she is nice. But she thinks that it is me who is her friend.
Michael (9 years old)
Interviewer: Michael, please tell me do you have a friend?
Michael: Yes, I have a friend. His name is Peter. He is a good friend of mine and we spend a lot of time together.
Interviewer: Michael, do you like tour friend? Why have you decided to keep company with him?
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Michael: Yes, I like my friend. He is a very interesting lad. We study at the same school and he is my neighbor. I think we are friends because we have used to come back from school together. Moreover, we both go in for sports. He is a good friend and I am sure he is always ready to give me a helping hand.