- Introduction: The Significance of the Issue
- ENDS Raising the Awareness of the Problem
- The Factors Enhancing the Problem and How to Eliminate Them
- Chloramine and the Formation of By-Products: Where It All Starts
- Modeling the Procedure, Searching for the Solution
- The Possible Way out: Alternative Disinfection Means
- Conclusion: There Is Still Some Hope Left
- Reference List
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Introduction: The Significance of the Issue
In the age when the environmental awareness has become an integral part of everyone’s life, the issue of drinking water pollution causes considerable anxiety and demands immediate solutions. Unfortunately, in the light of the recent conducted researches, the fact that drinking water is being polluted by large amounts of chloramine is undeniable, as well as the fact that chloramines is especially hazardous for people’s health.
It is worth mentioning that certain steps have already been undertaken to avoid the danger of pollution. However, it cannot be denied that the issue of chloramines in drinking water remains unsolved, which calls for another consideration of the issue and offering probable solutions of the given problem.
Analyzing current researches (see Adams, C., Timmons, T., Seitz, T., Lane, J., & Levotch, S. (2005), ENDS report (2009), Obolensky, A., Singer, P., & Shukairy, H. M. (2007), Shang, C., Qi, Y., & Lo, I. M. C. (2005) and Yang, J., Harrington, G., & Noguera, D. (2008)) and the recently offered solutions, one can possibly evaluate the impact of the problem and predict the outcomes.
ENDS Raising the Awareness of the Problem
Although the report offered by ENDS cannot be considered an all-embracing research on the issue of chloramine emergence in drinking water, it is still a considerably detailed summary of the problem and the probable consequences.
The given paper raises people’s awareness of the issue and, even though omitting certain relevant information, it still offers an honest report on what effects chloramine has on the drinking water and how it can possibly threaten people’s health.
It is important that the authors focus on the previous use of chlorine and explain the benefits of chloramines: “Drinking water disinfected with chloramines instead of chlorine is more likely to pass regulatory standards for disinfection by-products, researchers have confirmed” (27).
The Factors Enhancing the Problem and How to Eliminate Them
One of the most notable researches in the given field, the one conducted by Shang & Lo (2005) allows to see where the problem of chlorine starts from and what exact factors enhance the increase of chloramine in the drinking water. Helping to realize where the given problem stems from, the researchers thus allow to approach some solutions for the problem.
According to the research, “Generally, there are three ways to achieve monochloramination in practice, namely, preammoniation, concurrent additions, and preformed monochloramine, according to the sequence of chemical additions” (Shang & Lo, 2005, 120). Showing how the three above-mentioned procedures run, the researchers help to understand how to prevent these factors from occurring.
Chloramine and the Formation of By-Products: Where It All Starts
Another important research concerning the use of chloramines in drinking water and the corresponding consequences, the paper by Obolensky, Singer, & Shukairy (2007) allows to evaluate the actual threat and see the damage it can make.
In addition, it is essential that the researchers manage to offer the statistics on the drinking water pollution, therefore, making it possible to see the exact damage that the current system makes to the drinking water: “Overall, 2% of chlorine dose values and less than 1% of ammonia dose values and chlorine residual measurements were flagged” (Obolensky, Singer, & Shukairy, 2007, 56).
Modeling the Procedure, Searching for the Solution
To address the problem properly, one needs to develop a corresponding model, with all the factors mentioned and all the priorities in line. Among the most successful models of nitrification of chloraminated drinking water, the one offered by Yang, Harrington & Noguera (2008) seems the most legit.
According to the author, the given study offers an accurate model of the processes which occur during the chloramination of the drinking water. However, as the author states, “Despite these studies and the developed statistical models, the mechanism of how and when a nitrification episode will strike is still not completely understood” (Yang, Harrington & Noguera, 2008, 731).
The Possible Way out: Alternative Disinfection Means
The last, but not the least, the research conducted by Adams, Timmons, Seitz Lane & Levotch (2005) puts the rest of the facts into their places. Offering efficient means to reduce the number of byproducts emerging as a result of dissolving chemicals in the water, the given research suggests a way to solve the problem.
However, as the researchers claim, the given method presupposes “achieving compliance with THM and HAA5 regulatory requirements,” which is quite problematic. Hence, new ways of purifying the drinking water should be considered.
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Conclusion: There Is Still Some Hope Left
Thus, judging by the above-mentioned facts and the solutions suggested for the elimination of the problem, it can be suggested that the issue can be handled.
Obviously, the chloramines in the drinking water pose a considerable threat to the population and can lead to a number of health issues; yet it is evident that there can be a simple solution to the problem, i.e., tracking the level of chloarmine in the water and developing the mechanisms which can coordinate and reduce the chloramines level.
Even though the chemical cannot be ousted from drinking water completely, its percentage can still be shrunk to the amount which will pose no hazard for human health.
Adams, C., Timmons, T., Seitz, T., Lane, J., & Levotch, S. (2005). Trihalomethane and haloacetic acid disinfection by-products in full-scale drinking water systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131(4), 526-534.
ENDS (2009). Chloramine disinfection cuts-by products: Study. Environmental Data Services, 418, 27.
Obolensky, A., Singer, P., & Shukairy, H. M. (2007). Information collection rule data evaluation and analysis to support impacts on disinfection by-product formation. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 133(1), 53-63.
Shang, C., Qi, Y., & Lo, I. M. C. (2005). Factors affecting inactivation behavior in the monochloramination range. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 133(1), 119-129.
Yang, J., Harrington, G., & Noguera, D. (2008). Nitrification modeling in pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 134(9), 731-742.