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Source: University of Delaware
Newark City is one of the areas in New Jersey, which has managed to maintain an efficient water supply system for many years. The initial commissioning of Newark’s City water system was done in 1888 when the first city residents got to use the services of this crucial system (University of Delaware).
The University of Delaware points out that initially, this system only served a small number of people living in the area at the time. However, over the years, the city’s water system has been expanded to enable it to serve the ever-increasing population of Newark City adequately.
According to the University of Delaware, Newark City’s water distribution system has undergone significant expansion. Currently, it boasts over 9000 connections, providing water for both domestic and industrial use for more than 30,000 residents in the city. Newark’s city water distribution system caters for daily average usage of 4million gallons.
This implies that the city’s water system caters for an annual water demand of almost 1.5 billion gallons (University of Delaware). To cater for Newark City’s rather high water needs effectively, Newark city’s water supply and distribution system rely on various sources, from where it obtains this water. The University of Delaware asserts that the city’s water system employs the use of surface, ground, and purchased water sources.
According to the University of Delaware, the city’s surface water is usually obtained from White Clay Creek, from where it is collected and subjected to several treatment options, before being channeled to the city’s residents and for industrial use. The city’s groundwater source is usually provided by several wells, which are located at specific areas in the town.
The University of Delaware notes that although the city’s daily average water use has been predetermined; there are usually instances where the amount of daily usage surpasses these predetermined average figures.
To cater to this shortfall, the city’s water system usually purchases water from United Water Delaware. The purchased water is usually pre-treated and, therefore, the city’s water system does not usually have to treat it again. Instead, it channels it directly to the consumers.
According to the University of Delaware, Newark City’s current water treatment facility was commissioned in 1992, and it was meant to significantly improve the quality of service offered by the city’s water system. The treatment facility is largely used for the treatment of water from the city’s surface source, which is the White Clay Creek.
On a typical day, the treatment facility can treat up to 3 million gallons of water, which is almost 80 percent of the city’s daily water usage (University of Delaware). The treatment mechanism, as explained by the University of Delaware, first of all, involves channeling the raw water into a pond. Here, sedimentation is allowed to take place. This results in the settling of sediment material at the bottom of the pond.
From the pond facility, the water is then channeled to the main treatment facility. While in the main treatment facility, the water is treated with alum and polymer. Afterward, the water undergoes a purification process aimed at getting rid of impurities. This is usually followed by the addition of Chlorine, a water treatment option, which is usually meant to kill any bacteria present that might cause harm to the users.
The University of Delaware notes that most water from surface sources usually bears odor. This is because of impurities, which have previously been present in the water and, therefore, to remove this odor, the water undergoes a carbon treatment.
Finally, the water is treated with lime, which is a basic compound aimed at reducing its acidity. Consequently, fluoride is added to help protect the bones and teeth from the effects of excess fluorine present in the water. It is then channeled into the public distribution system, where it finds its way into people’s homes for domestic use and industries for industrial use.
Water pressure is a very important factor when it comes to the determination of the efficiency of water distribution systems. There are several pressure aspects that should be taken into account when designing an efficient water distribution system. First of all, there is the aspect of static pressure. According to Dion (36), static pressure represents potential energy, that might be used to move the water through the various distribution channels.
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These include piping, fire horse, and adapters. Static energy can be increased by raising the level of the water source. The second aspect of pressure that is of great importance is normal pressure. Normal pressure refers to the pressure in the water, while it is flowing through the various distribution channels at normal usage levels (Dion 40).
In addition to static and normal pressure, the third aspect of pressure that should be taken into account when designing an efficient water distribution system is residual pressure. This, according to the American Water Works Association (51), represents the available pressure that has not been consumed in facilitating the flow of water through the various distribution channels. Finally, the fourth pressure aspect is flow pressure.
Flow pressure usually represents pressure at a discharge point, and it is usually dependent on the diameter of the discharge point. To ensure effective distribution and flow of water from its distribution center to the customers, Newark City’s water system has a mechanism for ensuring that the pressure aspects (static, normal, residual and flow pressure) are kept at optimum levels.
The distribution facility is located at a relatively elevated location to increase static pressure. Moreover, the piping used for distribution is maintained at a constant diameter. This ensures that flow pressure is kept at a constant rate, from its point of distribution to the resident’s homes (University of Delaware).
To ensure that water is distributed effectively from the main distribution center located at the treatment facility to the residents of the city, the Newark Water Supply System employs the use of various types of pipes. These are all connected at various points in the distribution chain. This ensures maximum efficiency in the flow of water.
Some of the types of pipes used in transmitting water from its distribution points to the residential areas include steel pipes, galvanized Iron pipes, concrete pipes, and polythene and plastic pipes. The piping has been done in a way that ensures maximum efficiency at every point in the distribution link.
For instance, the piping used to directly facilitate the flow of water from the sources to the treatment facility comprise of steel and concrete pipes with huge diameters, that can allow a high volume of water to flow into the facility at any given time.
On the other hand, the piping used to deliver clean water to homes and other areas comprise of plastic and polythene pipes, whose diameter is small enough to allow only the required volume of water to flow through them to people’s residences (University of Delaware).
America Water Works Association. Installation, Field Testing and Maintenance of Fire Hydrants (M17). New York: America Water Works Association, 2006. Print.
Dion, T. R. Land Development for Civil Engineers. Boston: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Print.
University of Delaware. “Source Water Assessment of the City of Newark, Delaware Public Water Supply Intake Located on the White Clay Creek.” 2002. Web.